Virginia AG Pest Advisory

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Jul-23-2014
General Comments (Other)
From Ames Herbert
IMPORTANT—New Name and Transitioning to an Updated Delivery System
After 12+ years, the Virginia Ag Pest Advisory has been modernized. As of this week, it will be transitioned to a new format, powered by WordPress and MailChimp software. We are also adding new authors to cover crop updates so are changing our name to the Virginia Ag Pest and Crop Advisory. As with the old system, you will still receive weekly emails containing important advisories on your mobile or desktop device, and as before, you can scroll the titles and select only those that are important to you. Normal advisories will be delivered each Friday at 1 am and available for reading first thing on Friday mornings. And as before, there is an Urgent option that will be used to provide any advisories that need immediate attention. In addition, all advisories will be posted to the new Blog site: http://blogs.ext.vt.edu/ag-pest-advisory. You may want to bookmark this url. If you are not currently on the old Virginia Ag Pest Advisory email recipient list and want to be added, the Blog site provides an easy way for you to do that. We hope you will be pleased with our new advisory system. Thanks, Ames Herbert
Jul-22-2014
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late blight found on Tomato in Leesburg, VA
Unfortunately, late blight has been confirmed in Leesburg, VA by the Plant Disease Clinic in Blacksburg. Potato and tomato growers (especially in the northern part of the Commonwealth) should take precautionary actions and increase scouting. For more information on late blight please refer to the extension publication link about this potentially devastating disease. Please let us know if you have any more questions. http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/ANR/ANR-6/ANR-6_pdf.pdf
Jul-21-2014
Field Corn (Disease)
From Hillary Mehl
Southern Rust on Corn in North Carolina - Update
Southern rust was confirmed on a sample from Camden County, NC on July 21. At this time, southern rust has NOT been reported in Virginia. Yield of corn at or near the dent stage is unlikely to be impacted by the disease, but less mature corn may need to be protected with a fungicide application. Contact your local extension office for recommendations if you suspect southern rust is in your area. Samples of corn plants with symptoms of southern rust should be submitted to your local extension office or the disease clinic at the Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC (contact Dr. Hillary Mehl, hlmehl@vt.edu). Typically the disease has little impact on Virginia corn since it arrives too late in the season to affect yield, but if southern rust is confirmed in Virginia prior to corn reaching the dent stage (R5), fungicide applications may be warranted. Updates will be provided as more information is obtained.
Jul-17-2014
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Where are the kudzu bugs--soybean update
The big question today iswhere are the kudzu bugs we expected to see in our soybean crop? As of this week, we have not seen any adults or nymphs in the early planted full season crop. In fact, the same situation is being reported for much of the eastern US. Dominic Reisig at NCSU says that even in NC, the only reported infestations are from southernmost counties. Last summer by this time we were seeing many full season early planted files with infestations of adults that have moved from adjacent overwintering sites. The only bugs we have found so far have been in kudzu patches. So, whats the difference in years and why the delayed movement of adults? All we can say is that it must be related to the colder than normal temperatures we experienced during the winter. We know that in the Suffolk area there were at least two nights when temperatures dropped below zero (æF), and of course it was even colder north and west of us. Could those cold temperatures have killed some of the overwintering adults reducing the overall population levels? We do know from our adult overwintering emergence traps that were placed throughout much of the state that adults survived and emerged this April and May in about 12 counties in the southern part of the state. Why they did not move into early planted soybean fields is another unanswered question. From what I can gather from reading and talking with other entomologists in the southeast, 2014 is shaping up to be similar to 2011 when the first generation of kudzu bugs developed in kudzu (mostly) and other alternate hosts and only the second generation moved into soybean fields. This certainly seems to be what is happening this year. In some ways this scenario, if it plays out, will simplify the field scouting and threshold determination. The original kudzu bug threshold developed in the southeast was based on this second generation that moved into reproductive stage (floweringearly pod) soybean fieldsand it is based on number of nymphs (see below). We have initiated our 2014 soybean insect pest survey so will be reporting updates as they come in so stay tuned. Treatment Thresholds for 2nd Generation Kudzu Bugs, Nymphs Present Sweep Net " An average of 1 nymph/sweep, 15/15 sweeps " Take at least ten 15-sweep samples to represent the entire field " Sampling should not be biased by sampling close to field edges where populations may by congregated Canopy Observation " At least 10 observation spots representing the entire field " Nymphs easily found on main stems, leaf petioles or leaves
Jul-17-2014
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap counts for the week ending July 17, 2014
Low numbers of corn earworm in black light traps this week (July 11-17). Nightly averages were: Southampton=0.5; Petersburg=0.4; Prince George-Templeton=0.3; Prince George-Disputanta=zero; Warsaw=0.4; Isle of Wight=zero; Suffolk=zero. We had some high brown marmorated stink bug catches in Petersburg's black light trap (average of 6.6 BMSB per night). Other locations had either zero BMSB (Southampton, Prince George, Isle of Wight, and Suffolk) or 0.1 BMSB per night (Warsaw). Thanks to the following for their report: Chris Drake (Southampton), Mark Kraemer (Petersburg), Scott Reiter (Prince George), Mary Beahm (Warsaw), Janet Spencer (Isle of Wight), and Ames Herbert and crew (Suffolk).
Jul-12-2014
Field Corn (Disease)
From Hillary Mehl
Southern Rust on Corn in North Carolina
Southern rust, a potentially devastating disease of corn, has been reported from several counties in North Carolina. At this time, southern rust has NOT been reported in Virginia. Samples of corn plants suspected to be infected with southern rust should be submitted to your local extension office or the disease clinic at the Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC (contact Dr. Hillary Mehl, hlmehl@vt.edu). Signs of the disease are pustules filled with powdery masses of orange spores (see attached photo). Typically the disease has little impact on Virginia corn since it arrives too late in the season to affect yield, but if southern rust is confirmed in Virginia prior to corn reaching the dent stage (R5), fungicide applications may be warranted. Updates will be provided as more information is obtained. [More]
Jul-12-2014
Peanut (Disease)
From Hillary Mehl
Sclerotinia blight advisory
Sclerotinia blight has been confirmed in a peanut field in Surry County, VA. According to the Sclerotinia advisory, the current risk for Sclerotinia in Virginia is HIGH and scouting for the disease is recommended. Cool temperatures and high humidity favor disease development. Signs and symptoms of Sclerotinia blight include rapid wilting and death of infected branches, bleaching of stems, and white, fluffy fungal growth on stems, leaves, or pegs. Once Sclerotinia is identified in a field, a fungicide spray such as Omega is the best way to limit further development of the disease. For more information see the Peanut-Cotton Infonet (http://webipm.ento.vt.edu/cgi-bin/infonet1.cgi) or contact Dr. Hillary Mehl, Extension Plant Pathologist at the Tidewater AREC (hlmehl@vt.edu).
Jul-10-2014
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap report for July 10, 2014
Black light trap operators are reporting low numbers of corn earworm moths and some have low numbers of brown marmorated stink bugs. Nightly averages for corn earworm moths for the week of July 4-10 were: Petersburg-0.7; Warsaw-0.3; Suffolk-1.0; Prince George-Templeton-0.3; Prince George-Disputanta-0.0; Southampton-1.5. The nightly averages for BMSB were Petersburg-2.3; Warsaw-0.3; Suffolk-0.0; Prince George-Templeton-0.7; Prince George-Disputanta-0.0; Southampton-0.0. Thanks to Dr. Mark Kraemer (Petersburg), Mary Beahm (Warsaw), Dr. Ames Herbert and the entomology crew (Suffolk), Scott Reiter (Prince George), and Chris Drake (Southampton) for their reports this week.
Jul-02-2014
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Reports of Lygus bugs in cottona false alarm for Virginia
There is a lot of conversation about the big Lygus bug outbreaks in northeast North Carolina cotton, and that the pest is moving north. The first part is true. There are areas in NC that are experiencing Lygus bug pressure, especially in their eastern blacklands and in cotton fields near potato fields. The second part is not true. Lygus bugs do not migrate from south to north but are a localized pest that moves from host plant to host plant based on factors likewhen the alternate host plants dry down (like weeds) or are harvested (like potatoes). First, lets be sure we know what bug we are talking about. Lygus lineolaris, or tarnished plant bug (a. k. a. Lygus bug or plant bug) is a very common insect in our area. Small numbers of adults and nymphs can be found on almost any weed or crop that flowers. It is a small insect, about ¼ the size of an adult green or brown stink bug, that feeds in a similar manner to stink bugs by inserting its small beak into squares and bolls to extract plant fluids. Feeding can kill small squares and cause stink bug-like injury symptoms to small bolls. Lygus bugs can be a sever pest of cotton in some areas of the US like the Delta and Mid-south cotton states where growers battle this pest with 4 to 8 or more sprays each year. Infestation levels in the eastern states have always been much, much lower. Jack Bacheler, before he retired from NC State, used to quote total percentage cotton acreage treated annually for Lygus bugs to be on average only about 1  2 percent. In Virginia, I have only encountered or heard about a very few fields that were infested at levels that warranted treatment. The most recent was last summer on our Eastern Shore where a cotton field next to a potato field was damaged extensively when the Lygus bugs migrated out of the potatoes after they were dug. This is a classic case, and one that occurs a lot in the potato production area of northeast North Carolina. So, this mysterious Lygus bug pest is notmysterious, that is. We understand it, and we have good methods for determining if it is a real threat to a field. To scout for Lygus bugs you need to 1) check for missing squares (percent square retention), and 2) check for presence of adults or nymphs. Neither alone will give you the whole picture. You need to do bothcheck for missing squares, and check to see if bugs are active. Checking for only missing squares can mislead you because other stresses in the environment can cause small squares to shed (e.g., extreme heat, drought, periods of cloudy weather). Documenting the presence of Lygus bugs does not give the whole picture either because adults are extremely mobile and can rapidly move in and out of fields. Sometimes they may be present, but not causing square injury or loss. Weekly checks of upper square retention is the most efficient way to assess if Lygus bugs can either be ruled out as an economic concern at that time or if sweep netting for the adults and nymphs is needed. An upper square retention rate of 80% or more usually indicates that Lygus bugs are not present at damaging levels. In most years in Virginia, percent square retention is very high  often in the mid to upper 90s. A recent (July 1 and 2, 2014) check of 8 randomly selected fields showed they had greater than 95% square retention. If upper square retention is less than 80%, you should use a sweep net to sample in eight to 10 locations in the field away from the edge, looking for live adult and immature Lygus bugs. If a field has less than 80% square retention and an average of eight Lygus bugs per 100 sweeps, a spray is needed at that time. Remember that when cotton is approximately one week into blooming, a five-foot black beat cloth is a more accurate sampling devise than the sweep net for Lygus bug, especially the nymphs which show up as almost florescent green on the black cloth background. If a threshold is met and a treatment is needed, here is an example of a spray plan shared by NC State. For the first Lygus bug spray pre-bloom, at squaring or first flower, consider using a stand-alone neonicotinoid product (common examples include Admire Pro, Belay, Centric, Intruder, Trimax Pro). These are generally softer on beneficial insects so conserve them. If Lygus bugs are still a concern later on, or require a second spray, first check to see that aphids are not common in the field. We have been lucky in VA with having very little aphid pressure in cotton in the last few years, but if aphids are present, you should not use a neonicotinoid again. Switch to a product like Carbine, Transform, or one of the more effective pyrethroids. If aphids are not a concern, you should still not use a stand-alone neonicotinoid product for a second spray, but should switch to one of the pre-mixed products (like Endigo, Leverage, Swagger, etc.) that also contain a pyrethroid, or an organophosphate/carbamate-only product (like Bidrin, Orthene, Vydate, etc.). Many of these products are also effective against stink bugs; eliminating stink bugs can be beneficial during the period of boll formation. The downside to these products is that they kill beneficial insects and put the field at higher risk for bollworm and spider mitesso if any of these products is used, be sure to scout these fields later in the season.
Jul-02-2014
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Peanut worm pest advisory
Beet armyworms and tobacco budworms occurring in GA and SC peanut fields, and corn earworm moths are starting to show up in VA We are getting reports of infestations of both beet armyworm and tobacco budworm in peanut fields in Georgia and South Carolina. These are pretty early reports and could signal trouble to come. Although we get both species in this area of Virginia, it has been several years since we have experienced severe infestations of either. Beet armyworms seem to be cyclic, occurring only once every few years, with no pattern that we understand. Moths migrate into the area from the south and are particularly attracted to pigweed species. Often the caterpillars will be found feeding on pigweeds on field edges, or wherever the weeds are growing. They feed on pigweed plants then move to nearby crop plants. So peanut (cotton or soybean) fields bordered by a lot of pigweeds or with a lot weeds in the field are particularly vulnerable to beet armyworm infestations. Tobacco budworm is known to be an occasional pest of cotton, peanuts and soybeans in this area. Caterpillars are easily confused with corn earworm, a different but related species. Adult moths of these species look very different, but the caterpillars are almost identical except for features that require some knowledge and good magnification. We separate these species holding large sized caterpillars under a microscope and inspecting the shape of the mandibular ridge (the inside jaw of the mouthparts). Obviously this is not something that can be done in the field. Budworms are not a big threat to peanuts or soybean, as they are leaf feeders, only, and it takes a lot to do economic damage. They do no more damage than corn earworm, the more common of the two species. In peanut and soybean fields, both budworm and corn earworm can occur at the same time, but typically corn earworm is the dominant pest making up 70 percent or more of the total. In cotton budworms can be troublesome as they feed on young developing squares. Another difference between these species is the timing of the infestation. In some years we see budworm infestations early, before corn earworm. This seems to be the case this year, at least in states south of us. Corn earworm moths are starting to show up in VA. We are catching 10-20 per night in our local pheromone traps which isnt a lot in comparison to what we will see later in the season, but enough to result in some possible small outbreaks of worms. Beet armyworm, tobacco budworm, and corn earworm are strictly leaf feeders in peanut so any decision to treat a field should be based on 1) the number of worms per row foot, and 2) the degree of defoliation compared to the total foliage of the canopy. The threshold for worms for this time of year is 4 per row foot (total, all species). If you sample using a drop cloth, after slapping plants on both sides of a 3 foot long cloth you would need to see at least 12 worms. The likeliness of actually finding this many worms is very low&that is&it is pretty rare to find threshold levels of worms in any peanut field. But is always pays to be vigilant. Check fields periodically throughout the season for pests. If after checking you find at or near thresholds of any pest, select a product that fits the need. If for example you do find a field at threshold for a combination of beet armyworm, tobacco budworm, or corn earworm pyrethroids would not be the best choice. These species would be controlled better with non-pyrethroids like Steward, Belt, Prevathon, or Blackhawk.
Jun-20-2014
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late Blight found on Potato in Carteret Co., NC
Please review the attached disease alert regarding the discovery of late blight in NC. [More]
May-29-2014
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton/Peanut Thrips update, May 29, 2014
Thrips pressure ramped up very quickly over the past Memorial Day weekend. COTTON: In our cotton plots, were getting counts of over 100 immatures in some of our 5-plant seeding samples, and injury has reached extreme levels in untreated cotton. So, who cares about data from untreated cotton? I do. These data provide a ground-truth indicator of 1) how the thrips populations compare over the years, and 2) what amount of injury (symptoms) and damage (lint loss) they are capable of causing. We maintain untreated controls in our tests for these reasons. Depending on the planting date, variety and soil conditions, the injury in this years untreated controls is now ranging from 2.5 of so (on our 0-5 scale) to 4.85 (many plants killed or severely injured). Earlier planted cotton has the most injury and we see more in fields with heavier soils. Adult thrips are still present on the plants which tells us that the infestation cycle is not over. Based on past experience, I think the peak will occur next week. So if you have not treated for thrips, now would be a very good time to check fields and make the call. If you see any significant number of seedlings showing injury, especially if the new buds are injured, blackened and deformed, now is the time to treat. Many treatments in our cotton plots are providing excellent protection. For the most part, seed treatments are not providing the same level of protection as liquid in-furrow treatments. If you are relying on seed treatments, there is a good chance your cotton could benefit from a foliar treatment. The higher rates of the liquid in-furrow treatments are holding well and may not need additional foliar treatments, depending on how fast plants grow to the 3-4 leaf thrips-safe stage. PEANUTS: Thrips populations are slower to develop in peanuts but untreated plants are beginning to showing significant levels of injury (up to 3.0 on our 0-10 injury scale). There are a lot of adult thrips on peanut seedlings which tells us that the cycle is still in progress and things will get worse over the next couple of weeks, for sure. As in our cotton plots, the seed treatments are showing more injury compared with liquid in-furrow treatments and may need more protection. The decision is not as urgent in peanuts, compared with cotton, as peanuts seem to tolerate thrips injury betterbut, there is a point when more protection is a benefit. It is has been hard to pin this downbut in general if I see more 25-30% of the leaves with injury (crinkled leaves) and, especially, if the new terminal leaves are brown and deformed, it is time to apply a foliar treatment. EARLY SEASON FIELD TOURNEXT WEEKJUNE 5 If you are interested in getting a look at our cotton and peanut thrips trials, or field presentations by our other Tidewater AREC faculty, take advantage of the opportunity to attend our annual Early Season Field Tour Thursday of next week June 5. Registration begins at 8:30am at our Hare Road Farm and we will conclude with a nice lunch. CCA recertification credits will be offered, as well as credits for Private Applicators, Commercial Applicators 1-A, 1-C and 10) and Registered Technicians. Email or call if you need more information (herbert@vt.edu; 757-657-6450).
May-29-2014
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC June 5 Tour Brochure and Other Information
Attached is a trifold brochure containing details about the "Early Summer Row Crops Tour" to be held at the Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC Hare Road Research Farm on the morning of Thursday, June 5, 2014. Registration begins at 8:30 am and the tour starts promptly at 9:00 am. We are offering recertification for Private, Commercial 1A, 1C, 10, and Registered Technician pesticide applicators, and also are offering Certified Crop Advisor CEU credits. [More]
May-22-2014
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Thrios infestation update
Thrips infestation update A quick update. We began sampling cotton and peanut seedlings this week for thrips. We take cotton plants or peanut leaflets from field plots, rinse the adult and immature thrips into lab dishes, and count them under a scope. We are at the beginning of the infestation and seeing just a few adults on plantsless than one adult per plant on cotton seedlings and less than one per leaflet in peanut. We see even fewer immatures, with one exception--in some cotton that was planted very early during the last week in April. Those plants have pretty high numbers of immaturesaround 20 per plant. We are just beginning to see the visual symptoms of the feeding injurynot enough yet to do ratings. In general the infestation is a little behind compared to most years due to the cooler spring/early summer temperatures, but I expect we will see more immatures next week and more injury. Even though the infestation seems a little delayed, I would stay with our recommended treatment schedule. If a foliar application is needed, I would still target the early first true leaf stage. Treating when seedlings are in that stage has almost always given us the best resultsstay with the plan. We will begin providing weekly updates on thrips and other insect pests as the season progressesso stay tuned.
May-22-2014
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Reminder: June 5 Field Tour Invitation
This is a reminder that the Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) will hold an early-summer row crops tour during the morning of Thursday, June 5, 2014. The tour will be held at the TAREC Research Farm (1045 Hare Road, Suffolk, VA). On-site registration will begin at 8:30 am and the tour will begin promptly at 9:00 am. There is no pre-registration, and there are no fees associated with this event. Lunch will be provided courtesy of Berry Lewis with Bayer CropScience. Specialists will display field research in progress and will present information for the 2014 crop season. The speakers will include faculty from TAREC (Drs. Balota, Frame, Herbert, Holshouser, and Mehl) and their graduate students. Topics will include thrips management in cotton and peanut; peanut plant population and maturity research; disease management in row crops and wheat; potassium for full-season and double-crop soybean; and preplant and in-furrow application of fertilizers in cotton. Robert Christian of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services will conclude the tour with a pesticide safety review. We have been approved to offer Certified Crop Adviser Continuing Education credits, and Private Pesticide Applicator recertification credits. We are also applying to offer Commercial Pesticide Applicator/Registered Technician recertification credits. More information is available through local Virginia Cooperative Extension offices or by contacting the TAREC main office at 757-657-6450. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact TAREC at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8:00 am and 4:30 pm to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event.
May-15-2014
Small Grains (Disease)
From Hillary Mehl
Scab advisory
Some parts of Virginia have entered a moderate risk of scab, and a few localized areas have a severe risk (check your area using the Scab Risk Assessment Tool at www.wheatscab.psu.edu). This is the result of increased humidity, and the forecasted rain may increase infections of flowering heads by the scab fungus. The following recommendations were made on the Head Scab Prediction Center Website (www.wheatscab.psu.edu) by Nathan Kleczewski from the University of Deleware: "Fields entering flowering are at the highest risk for scab. The best fungicides for scab are Prosaro, Caramba, and Proline. Do not apply products containing a strobilurin (e.g. Aproach Prima, Quilt, Stratego, Headline, Quadris, etc) as strobilurins have been associated with elevated DON levels when applied to the head and scab occurs. There is a 5-6 day window after the majority of a field is flowering and conducive weather occurs to make a fungicide application and maximize efficacy. Ground rigs should have nozzles angled at least 15 degrees in the forward direction and apply at least 10 gallons per acre, with 15-20 being optimal. Aerial applicators should apply at 5 gallons per acre. Shoot for 300 to 350 micron droplet size. Prosaro, Caramba, and Proline will control foliar diseases." These same recommendations apply to Virginia. Foliar diseases of wheat also have the potential to increase at this time. Several fungicides have good to excellent efficacy in control of multiple diseases. Remember to avoid strobilurin containing fungicides for the reasons described above. The attached document gives information on wheat growth stages, scouting for diseases, and fungicide efficacy for control of various wheat diseases. If you have any questions or concerns feel free to contact me. Hillary L. Mehl, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC 6321 Holland Road Suffolk, VA 23437 Telephone: (757) 657-6450, ext. 423 email: hlmehl@vt.edu [More]
May-05-2014
Small Grains (Disease)
From Hillary Mehl
Head scab advisory
If your wheat is flowering, it may be at risk for head scab (Fusarium head blight, FHB). FHB is caused primarily by the fungus Fusarium graminearum. Infection of wheat heads with this fungus can result in significant yield loss and contamination of the grain with deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin). Risk of FHB can be determined using the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/). As of today (May 5) many areas in eastern and central Virginia have a moderate FHB risk; portions of the Eastern Shore (Accomack County) have a high risk. Early flowering is the best timing for fungicide applications. Prosaro, Proline, and Caramba are the most effective products to reduce FHB and DON. If a strobilurin is applied at or after heading, and IF scab infections occur, DON levels are likely to be elevated compared to a triazole or even an unsprayed check. Information on FHB can be found in the Virginia Tech Extension publication Managing Fusarium Head Blight in Virginia Small Grains (http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/3102/3102-1535/3102-1535.html). [More]
May-01-2014
Field Corn (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Be careful if you are planning to tank mix Admire Pro with a starter/pop-up liquid fertilizer
Admire Pro applied as a liquid into the seed furrow is proving to be an excellent option for controlling thrips in cotton and peanuts. To increase efficiency, growers are beginning to look at the options for tank mixing other planting time products with the Admire Pro including different starter/pop-up liquid fertilizers. We have information that suggests that there are some combinations that are not working well. For example, we did a field trial last summer and found that Admire Pro did NOT mix well with 10-34-0 (N-P-K). Where Ca(NO3)2 tank mixed with the Admire Pro with no problem and provided good seedling vigor and good thrips control, the 10-34-0 (N-P-K) Admire Pro tank mix did not. The Admire Pro 10-34-0 mix clotted up and caused clogginh of sprayer lines and nozzle screens. Not unpredictably, seedling vigor and thrips control were also compromised. We recently had the same experience with a local grower. Before (thankfully) adding Admire Pro to a full load of 3-15-19, (N-P-K) starter/pop-up fertilizer we did a jar test. We saw the same result as we did the previous summer in our field trialthat the Admire Pro clotted up in the jar and quickly precipitated out in whitish flakes to the bottom of the jarnot good. We are beginning a project to evaluate other fertilizer products in lab jar test mixes and will take some of these to the field this summer to look at how these mixes perform, both in terms of seedling growth enhancement and thrips control. In the meantime we STRONGLY recommend that if you are planning to tank mix Admire Pro with a starter/pop-up fertilizer that you do a jar test to check for compatibility. And, based on our experiences, when filling the spray tank you should add the water first, then the fertilizer, then the Admire Pro last. Continual tank agitation may also be helpful to minimize the risk of any settling of the suspension. Ames Herbert and Hunter Frame, VT, Tidewater AREC
Apr-29-2014
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Got stink bugs - brief survey for growers
Got stink bugs? We need your help! We're surveying growers to assess the impact of BMSB on crops and gather information that will help us defeat this pest. Receive a free Guide to Stink Bugs* if you complete the 10-minute BMSB survey (copy and paste the URL) (https://cornell.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_5ssnjXLNhvp6v1H). Your participation will help us to help you Stop BMSB! The survey will be available until June 30th. Thank you from the Outreach Team for "StopBMSB," a project focused on the biology, ecology, and management of the brown marmorated stink bug. For more info: StopBMSB.org *see it at https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/444/444-356/444-356_pdf.pdf
Apr-15-2014
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Kudzu bug traps are catching adults
Please see the attached short note and state map showing the 13 counties where kudzu bug traps have caught emerging (from overwintering) adult kudzu bugs. Looks like we are set up for an interesting summer. Ames Herbert [More]
Mar-05-2014
General Comments (Disease)
From Hillary Mehl
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control - 2013
A summary of the field crop disease management trials conducted at the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center in 2013 is attached. [More]
Mar-05-2014
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Save the date--Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC's "Early Summer Row Crops Tour" scheduled for June 5, 2014
Please mark your calendars for the Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center's annual "Early Summer Row Crops Tour" on the morning of Thursday, June 5, 2014, with in-field presentations by Drs. Balota, Frame, Herbert, Holshouser, and Mehl. More details will be provided in the near future.
Jan-08-2014
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Position Announcement: Director and Professor, Tidewater AREC, Suffolk, VA
Please click "More" to view the position announcement (pdf file). [More]
Jan-03-2014
General Comments (Other)
From Mark Reiter
25th Annual Eastern Shore Ag Conference and Trade Show
Please find attached the program for the 25th Annual Eastern Shore Ag Conference & Trade Show on January 7 and 8, 2014. The event will be held at the Eastern Shore Community College Workforce Development Center, 29300 Lankford Highway, Melfa, VA 23410. This event is free and open to the public with no registration required. Feel free to pass on to any email lists, stakeholders, etc. that may be interested. Continuing education credits for Certified Crop Advisers will be offered. Any further program changes, weather advisories, and so forth will be posted on my Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/EasternShore.Soils Thank you, Mark [More]
Dec-30-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Workshop entitled Getting Started in Vegetable Production - January 27, 2014 Hershey, PA
On Monday January 27, 2014 a workshop Getting Started in Vegetable Production will be held prior to the Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention at the Hershey Lodge, Hershey, Pa. The convention runs from January 28-30, 2014. This workshop is intended for beginning vegetable growers or those thinking about getting into the production of vegetables. The workshop will cover important topics that growers need to think about when contemplating entering into growing vegetables. The speakers at the workshop have years of experience working with vegetable growers and will provide a wealth of information that will prove useful to beginning and new growers. The cost of the workshop is $35.00 and will be separate from the registration for the convention. For more information on registration contact Bill Troxell, Executive Secretary, Pennsylvania Vegetable Growers Association at "William Troxell" or phone: 717-694-3596.
Dec-13-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Ames Herbert's "2013 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, Soybean, and Sorghum" now available online
To access Dr. Herbert's 2013 research summary book, please copy and paste the following link into your browser's URL address bar, which will take you to the Virginia Cooperative Extension Publications and Resources website: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/AREC/AREC-61/AREC-61.html
Dec-06-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Helene Doughty
ATTENTION VIRGINIA VEGETABLE GROWERS
Attention Virginia Vegetable Growers: The Virginia Tech vegetable entomology program, in collaboration with the horticulture sustainable agriculture program, is conducting a survey of vegetable growers to gain valuable insight on current practices and issues as well as better tailor future research needs. We would greatly appreciate your time and cooperation in taking the online survey accessible through the following link: https://survey.vt.edu/survey/entry.jsp?id=1384452235649. Copy and paste the link into your browser's URL address bar if the link will not redirect you. Should you encounter any issue with the survey or wish to receive a copy of the survey for completion, please contact me at: hdoughty@vt.edu Thank you. Your participation is greatly appreciated.
Oct-28-2013
General Comments (Other)
From Mark Reiter
Mid-Atlantic Crop Management School Registration is OPEN!
Certified Crop Advisers (CCA), Nutrient Management Planners, and any others too! Join us in Ocean City, MD for the Mid-Atlantic Crop Management School from November 19-21, 2013. This two and a half day school will cover sessions that offer CCA Continuing Education Credits and nutrient management credits. Sessions include: Crop Management, Nutrient Management, Vegetable Production, Pest Management, and Soil & Water Management. Please see the following link for more information and to register: http://app.certain.com/profile/form/index.cfm?PKformID=0x15600158aa5
Sep-26-2013
Soybean (Disease)
From Hillary Mehl
Virginia Soybean Rust Update: September 26, 2013
This week Asian soybean rust was confirmed in Isle of Wight County. Please see the attached update for details. [More]
Sep-19-2013
Soybean (Disease)
From Hillary Mehl
Soybean Rust Update: September 19, 2013
Since the announcement that Asian soybean rust (SBR) was found in the sentinel plots at the Tidewater AREC, we have been receiving lots of inquires about what the risk is to the soybean crop and whether or not it is prudent to spray. Attached I have provided a somewhat lengthy description of the status of SBR in Virginia and the factors growers should consider before deciding whether or not to spray. Please contact me if you have any additional questions or concerns regarding the status of soybean rust in Virginia (Hillary Mehl, Extension Plant Pathologist: hlmehl@vt.edu). [More]
Sep-19-2013
Soybean (Disease)
From Hillary Mehl
Soybean Rust found in Suffolk, VA
On September 17, 2013 soybean (SBR) rust was observed and confirmed on soybean leaves (10/34 leaflets, 2% leaf coverage) collected from one of the Tidewater AREC sentinel plots on September 5. Suffolk is the only county in Virginia thus far with confirmed soybean rust, but we will now intensify our scouting efforts throughout the soybean-growing regions of the state. So far in 2013, SBR has been confirmed on soybeans in 185 counties/parishes in 10 states in the U.S. (AL, GA, FL, MS, LA, SC, AR, NC, TN, and VA) including two counties in North Carolina and one county in SE Virginia. Soybean sentinel plots and commercial fields are monitored annually for early detection of SBR and tracking of disease spread. Data are used to make recommendations for timely applications of fungicide sprays for control of SBR. Since August, soybean leaflets from sentinel plots at the Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC in Suffolk, VA have been evaluated on a weekly basis, and as in prior years, the first report of SBR in Virginia was from one of these sentinel plots. Other diseases in soybeans at this time include Cercospora blight, brown spot, frogeye leaf spot, and anthracnose. Risk of yield loss in soybean is minimal if SBR is detected following the R6 development stage. However, growers with soybeans that have not yet reached the R6 stage should consider spraying fungicides for control of SBR (triazole or pre-mix fungicide). This is particularly relevant for late-maturing/double-cropped soybean. Updates will be emailed weekly as we track the progress of SBR spread and disease development throughout Virginia. NOTE: I would like to introduce myself as the new Extension Plant Pathologist (replacement for Dr. Pat Phipps) at the Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC in Suffolk, VA. My focus is plant disease management in field crops for the state of Virginia. My contact information is the following: Hillary L. Mehl, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology; Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC, 6321 Holland Road, Suffolk, VA 23437; Telephone: (757) 657-6450, ext. 423; Cell: (530) 906-0807; email: hlmehl@vt.edu
Sep-19-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light tables for the week ending Sep. 19, 2013
Corn earworm moth and brown marmorated stink bug numbers were generally low this week in local black light traps. Please click "More" to see the detailed report. Thanks to the participating Virginia Cooperative Extension Agents, Virginia Tech and Virginia State University faculty and staff, Farmers who hosted the traps, and others involved in this season's black light trap monitoring efforts. [More]
Sep-12-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm and BMSB black light trap captures for the week ending Sep. 12, 2013
Please see the attached tables for this week's corn earworm moth and brown marmorated stink bug average nightly captures in local black light traps. Thanks to the following for their reports this week: Chris Drake, John Allison, Laura Maxey, Mary Beahm, David Moore, Mark Kraemer, Scott Reiter, Kelvin Wells, Ames Herbert and his entomology crew, and Helene Doughty. [More]
Sep-05-2013
Field Corn (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap catches for week ending Sep. 5, 2013
Some of the higher corn earworm moth nightly averages were 37 (Dinwiddie-Old Hickory) and 66 per night (Charles City), but other reports were much lower (most were below 5 per night). Brown marmorated stink bug were caught in Petersburg (3.4 per night), Dinwiddie (1.1 per night in Old Hickory), and Warsaw (0.4 per night). Please click "More" for the complete tables. Thanks to the following for their reports this week: John Allison, Chris Drake, Mary Beahm, Scott Reiter, Mark Kraemer, Mike Parrish, and Ames Herbert and crew. [More]
Sep-05-2013
Soybean (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug and kudzu bug in Virginia distribution maps--Sep. 5, 2013
The Virginia distribution maps for these two invasive species are attached (please click "More"). [More]
Aug-29-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap counts for week ending August 29, 2013
Please click "More" for the corn earworm moth and brown marmorated stink bug tables. Corn earworm moth numbers varied greatly by location, with some very high captures in Charles City. Brown marmorated stink bug numbers ranged from zero to 2.4 per night. Thanks to the following for their reports this week: David Moore, John Allison, Laura Maxey, Mary Beahm, Keith Balderson, Scott Reiter, Kelvin Wells, Mark Kraemer, Ames Herbert and crew, and Helene Doughty. [More]
Aug-22-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap catches for week ending Aug. 22, 2013
Please click "More" to view the average nightly black light trap captures of corn earworm moths and brown marmorated stink bugs (BMSB). This week's corn earworm catches ranged from 0.1 to 5.1 per night; BMSB ranged from zero to 1.9 per night. Thanks to our trap operators Chris Drake, Keith Balderson, Mary Beahm, Mark Kraemer, Mike Parrish, Ames Herbert and crew, Laura Maxey, and Jim Jenrette for their reports this week. Also, thanks to all those providing a location and power source for these traps. [More]
Aug-22-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Pyrethroid resistance monitoring update--Aug. 22, 2013
As of August 22, 2013, we have evaluated 545 Helicoverpa zea moths (=corn earworm) (=bollworm) in our cypermethrin vial tests (cypermethrin is a standard pyrethroid). Results are provided in the attached pdf document (please click "More"). In the vial test, moths are exposed to cypermethrin for 24 hours and are then rated as dead, down, or alive. For the entire season to date, an average of 22% of H. zea moths have survived the test. Please refer to Dr. Herbert's August 13th advisory for how to best interpret these vial test results. [More]
Aug-22-2013
Cotton (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) survey in cotton (so far, none found)
We began visually inspecting cotton fields for BMSB on July 17, 2013. As of August 22, we have made 76 visits to cotton fields in Dinwiddie, Greensville, Isle of Wight, Southampton, Suffolk, Surry, and Sussex Counties. No BMSB have been found during our cotton surveys, to date.
Aug-22-2013
Soybean (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Kudzu bug distribution in Virginia--Aug. 22 update
Please click "More" to view the Aug. 22, 2013 distribution map of kudzu bug in Virginia soybean and other hosts. Also in the attachment is the percent control of a long list of insecticides for kudzu bug (courtesy of Jeremy Greene at University of Georgia and Phillip Roberts at Clemson University). If you are at kudzu bug threshold (1 nymph per sweep) and decide to treat your field, you may want to consider a product (or one with similar active ingredients) from the list that has a high percent control. When choosing a product, please keep in mind any other pests that are present in your field. And, please read and follow the label. [More]
Aug-21-2013
Soybean (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) update for soybean
Please click "More" to view the most recent update on BMSB distribution in Virginia soybean (please see slide 1 of the attached pdf document). On August 20, our soybean scout Ed Seymore reported that in the last week stink bugs have started to move out of corn and into soybean fields in the counties of Culpeper, Fauquier, Franklin, King George, Rappahannock, Rockingham, Spotsylvania and Stafford. These counties have reached the threshold for stink bugs of 5 stink bugs in 15 sweeps (in the fields that we scouted). Attention should be paid to fields that border corn and woods especially with the tree of heaven (end report from Mr. Seymore). Note that thresholds in soybean do not distinguish between BMSB and native green and brown stink bug species (also shown on slide 1). Dr. Herbert's insecticide efficacy trials and on-farm edge treatment research suggest that most insecticides provide initial stink bug knock down (please refer to slides 2 and 3 for efficacy trial results, where the higher percent control, the better). Residual activity varies, and reinvasion can occur after loss of residual protection. Since BMSB exhibit a strong soybean field edge preference, perimeter-only treatments may be effective. Please remember to always base management decisions on proper scouting and thresholds, and always read and follow the pesticide label (sometimes, products and/or rates that we include in our tests are experimental; also, product labels and rates may change from year to year). [More]
Aug-15-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap catches for week ending Aug. 15, 2013
Please click "More" for this week's black light trap catches of corn earworm moths and brown marmorated stink bugs. Thanks to all of our trap operators for their reports! [More]
Aug-14-2013
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Soybean aphids spotted in Essex County Virginia: Refresher on Thresholds and Sampling
I just got a report of a soybean aphid infestation in Essex County. It has been several years since we have seen soybean aphid in Virginia, but the summer conditions (generally cooler, overcast) favor development of that pest. Reports of spotty infestations are also coming in from other states, North Carolina included. As a reminder, the current economic threshold for aphids is an average of 250 aphids per plant, on two consecutive field visits spaced about 5-7 days apart (hit the more button for more). This is because aphid populations can crash quickly due to heavy pressure by natural enemies like lady beetles, parasitic wasps, and fungal diseases. When scouting, choose a Z or W shaped pattern to cover the entire field and sample at last 20 to 30 plants per field by examining the entire plant including stems and upper and lower leaf surfaces. Use the aphid/plant average for determining the need for treatment. The threshold applies to soybean through the R5 growth stage (3 mm long seed in the pod at one of the four uppermost nodes on the main stem), after which time plants can tolerate 1,000+ aphids with no threat to yield. [More]
Aug-13-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm activity is increasing, and, an update on the pyrethroid resistance monitoring results
CEW moth activity is definitely beginning to increase. We are now catching 20-30 per night in our traps compared to 4 or 5 per night last week. We are not sure how this will progress. A lot will depend on the weather, and eventually, corn harvest. We will keep posting updates. PEANUTS: We are beginning to find just a few worms in peanut fieldsway below any reasonable threshold (See the advisory I posted on the peanut/worm situation for more details). SORGHUM: A few worms are beginning to show up in sorghum heads (See the advisory I posted on sorghum head worms). SOYBEAN: We are getting reports of a few worms in soybean fields but not at threshold levels, and not threatening the seed. COTTON: Although we have found a few CEW eggs, we are finding almost no worms. This could be year when the BG2 and WideStrike provide enough protection, without additional foliar sprays. PYRETHROID RESISTANCE: Keep in mind that I use the term resistance loosely. We cannot prove/disprove actual resistance using the AVT (Adult Vial Testing) method, only determine the percent that survive the pyrethroid challenge. So, where do we stand this year? If you open the file (more button) you can get a quick comparison of where we are compared to last yearso far we are seeing only about 30% survivorship. But also notice that the number of moths tested to date is very low, which could bias our results. Is 30% survivorship enough to warrant a shift to a non-pyrethroidmy answer is, it depends. My rule of thumb isif a field is at or just above the threshold (check that for each crop), a pyrethroid applied at the highest labeled rate, using a spray system that achieves good plant coverage, will do well. But, if a field is 3 to 4 times the threshold, or higher, a non-pyrethroid will be needed. [More]
Aug-13-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
The sorghum head worm situation
As of this week, we are starting to find a few corn earworms in sorghum grain heads. We suggest that you should begin sampling any sorghum fields that have heads entering the milk stageand many in Virginia are in that stage. Using the bucket/shake method is the best way to determine the average number of worms per head. We recommend doing a series of 10-head samples in each field. Shake 10 randomly selected heads into a white 5-gallon bucket and count the worms/10=average per head. Do several 10-head samples in each field taking samples from areas with any obvious differences (different head maturities, areas next to corn, etc.)then calculate an overall worm/head field average. Recommendations are pretty variable across states, but an average of 2 worms per head, or more, should trigger a spray. Use a spray boom/nozzle/gpa/psi system that delivers as much product to the heads as possible. Spraying leaves is a waste of productthe more product hitting the heads, the better. Directing sprays to the heads is even more important in varieties with compact heads (vs loose heads). When heads are compact, worms tend to burrow to the center, are not easily seen, and are not as vulnerable to sprays. Remember, the insecticides used for worm control depend on direct contact. What insecticides should you use? Sorghum has fewer labeled insecticides than many commodities, but there is a pretty good selection with different modes-of-action. Pyrethroids include Tombstone, Mustang Maxx, Karate/Warrior, and Asana XL, and others. Non-pyrethroids include Belt, Blackhawk (was Tracer), and Lannate. There are a few others that combine active ingredients like Stallion (Mustang + Lorsban) and Consero (Prolex + Tracer). Note that we have not evaluated these products so cannot make comments about control, but have experienced lack of control with pyrethroids, alone, when worm populations were high or worms were a large size (harder to kill) when sprays were applied.
Aug-13-2013
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Worms reported in SC and NC peanut fields, what doest that mean for VA growers?
I have seen reports of mixed species worm populations in some peanut fields in both South and North Carolina. Populations include corn earworm (may be some tobacco budworm also, but you cannot tell these species apart without some experience and good magnification of the mandibles/jaws), beet armyworm, and fall armyworm. Although I have not heard of worms in Virginia peanut fields, we should be on the lookout for them. With these mixed species worm complexes it will be pretty important to know which species are in your fieldssohow good are your worm ID skills? We have a good insect ID guide available that shows the characteristics that most easily distinguish these different worm species. We will be glad to mail some to you, let us know, or you can access the guide on the web at: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/444/444-360/444-360.html. Knowing the species is important in choosing the right insecticideif control is needed (see below). The next important question isshould I treat for worms? In my experience, many growers treat fields that are not at any risk to yield lossthat is, they jump the gun. It takes a lot of leaf feeding for worms to do economic damage to peanuts, and I have seen only a handful of cases where this has occurred over the past many years. This will be especially true this year when peanut canopies are very large, so are able to withstand even more leaf tattering with no negative consequence. But if you do determine that a field is in danger, feel the urge to spray, or just love killing wormsbetter not rely on a pyrethroid or you may not be satisfied with the results. Corn earworms have become a little more difficult to control with pyrethroids in recent years, and beet armyworm and fall armyworm have never been very susceptible to pyrethroids. You will need to turn to some of the non-pyrethroid options like Steward EC @9.2-11.3 oz/acres, Belt SC @2-4 oz/acre, or Blackhawk (was Tracer) @1.7-3.3 oz/acre.
Aug-12-2013
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Invitation to the Virginia Soybean Field Day  Aug. 14, 2013
You are invited to attend the 2013 Virginia Soybean Field Day at the Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research & Extension Center (EVAREC) in Warsaw on Wednesday August 14. Registration begins at 2:30 pm with field tours following at 3:00 pm. Dinner will be served at 6:00 pm courtesy of the Virginia Soybean Board and The Virginia Soybean Association. The address of the EVAREC is 2229 Menokin Road, Warsaw, VA 22572. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center main office at 804-333-3485 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) prior to the event. Field day topics are shown below. We look forward to seeing you there. Low Phytate Soybeans for a Healthier Chesapeake Bay (Dr. Bo Zhang, Virginia Tech Soybean Breeder); Elite STS Soybeans  Low Input, High Profit (Dr. Zhang); Superior Conventional Soybeans for Better Yields (Dr. Zhang); Distribution and Management of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug and Kudzu Bug (Dr. Ames Herbert, Virginia Tech Entomologist); Maximizing Double-Crop Yields Through Inputs (Dr. David Holshouser, Virginia Tech Soybean Agronomist); Optimizing Early Season Growth & Yield (Mr. Kevin Dillon, Graduate Research Assistant and United Soybean Board Fellow); Does Variety Affect Yield Response to Fungicides? (Mr. Dillon); Predicting Yield Increases with Fungicides (Dr. Pat Phipps, Virginia Tech Plant Pathologist); Small Grains 2013 Comments (Dr. Wade Thomason, Virginia Tech Small Grains Agronomist); Looking Ahead to Fall Planting (Mr. Keith Balderson, Essex County Extension Agent); Greetings from the Virginia Soybean Association (Mr. Logan Vaughan, President, VSA); CSES Department Update (Dr. Tom Thompson, CSES Department Head); Greetings from CALS (Dr. Jody Jellison, Assoc. Director, Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station).
Aug-08-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap captures for week ending August 8, 2013
Please click "More" to view the tables with the average number of corn earworm moths and brown marmorated stink bugs (BMSB) captured per night in local black light traps. Mark Kraemer in Petersburg reported approximately 3 to 4 BMSB per foot on some maturity group 4 vegetable-type soybean with pods present (Guelph and Kanrich), but BMSB were not on surrounding maturity group 5 soybean in the flowering stage. Dr. Kraemer also reported seeing BMSB on Asian long beans again this year. Mike Arrington found corn earworm (=bollworm) egg-threshold levels in cotton research plots at the Tidewater AREC (Suffolk) and at an on-farm cotton research trial in Southampton County this week. Thanks to our black light trap operators for their reports this week: David Moore, Kelvin Wells, Laura Maxey, Mary Beahm, Chris Drake, Watson Lawrence, Mark Kraemer, Janet Spencer, Ames Herbert and his entomology crew, Scott Reiter, Keith Balderson, Helene Doughty, and Jim Jenrette. [More]
Aug-08-2013
Soybean (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug and kudzu bug distribution maps
Please click "More" to view the August 5, 2013 versions of the brown marmorated stink bug and kudzu bug distribution maps for Virginia. [More]
Aug-06-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Downy Mildew Widespread in Virginia on Pumpkin
Please see the latest disease update on downy mildew on pumpkin. [More]
Aug-01-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm (CEW), kudzu bug, and stink bug update
The corn earworm situation is shaping up to be late and fairly light, at least thats what we seem to be seeing so far. Our annual field corn/corn earworm survey is completed with 27 counties reported. Percent infested ear averages are very low compared to most years. The overall average across all counties is at an all time low of less than 18% ears infested. Even the southeastern counties which traditionally have had the highest infestation level are at just over 23% ears infested, when averages are normally in the 40-60% range. The moth movement from corn is also slow in developing. We have yet to see more than just a few moths in our local black light traps and we are not seeing moths fling from fields as we walk them, or at night. We can speculate about the reasons for this unusually low level, but the bottom line is that unless things change pretty drastically over the next few weeks, we may not see many soybean, cotton, peanut or sorghum fields infested this year. Kudzu bug activity in soybean is increasing. From our statewide surveillance program, we are now up to 37 counties with infestations in soybean fields. The good news is that most of these infestations are at low or very low levelswell below the economic thresholdbut there are exceptions. Heavy infestations are now reported for several of the counties close to the NC border. The heaviest infestations are in early planted fields that are flowering or beginning to form pods. We are now seeing second generation adults in many fields. We are not sure what this will mean in terms of the late planted fields, time will tell. In an earlier advisory we attached a table generated by entomologists at Clemson and UGA that listed the percent control provided by a long list of insecticides. We STRONGLY recommend that if a field treatment is needed that growers use products that are listed at the top of that tablethose that provide the best control. We have learned that not following this guide can lead to having to retreat. Stink bug pressure in cotton is turning out to be less severe than what we had predicted earlier, although we are seeing a number of fields at threshold. Cotton will remain vulnerable to stink bugs for a few more weeksat least through the 6th week of bloom. If a treatment is needed this week (or has already been applied), we recommend re-sampling for new damage at about 7 days post-treatmentusing our cotton stink bug threshold card. Additional treatments may be needed, especially if the traditional bollworm treatment is not needed because of the very light CEW pressure discussed above. That traditional bollworm treatment (if it included a pyrethroid) has been providing stink bug control as an added bonus. So a field that does not have to be treated for bollworm (use the 3% worm/fresh worm damaged boll threshold) may have to be treated again for stink bugs. So scout fields for fresh stink bug damage weekly for the next few weeks and abide by the recommended percent damaged boll thresholds.
Aug-01-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap captures of corn earworm moths and BMSB for week ending Aug. 1, 2013
The average nightly captures of corn earworm moths and brown marmorated stink bugs in area black light traps are attached (please click "More"). Counts for both pests were pretty low this week. Thanks to trap operators Scott Reiter, Laura Maxey, Keith Balderson, Mary Beahm, Ames Herbert and his entomology team, Mark Kraemer, Mike Parrish, Kelvin Wells, Helene Doughty, Jim Jenrette, and Chris Drake for their reports this week. [More]
Aug-01-2013
Field Corn (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Results of the 2013 corn earworm survey of field corn
Attached (click "More") are the results of Dr. Herbert's 2013 corn earworm survey of field corn in Virginia. In general, numbers of ears infested with earworm larvae were lower than in previous years. Hopefully this means fewer moths that emerge, leave this nursery crop, and lay eggs in soybean, cotton, peanut, etc. Our network of black light traps will help you determine moth flight activity in your area. It is also vital to scout your crops and use appropriate thresholds for eggs or larvae. For soybean, please use the Corn Earworm Economic Threshold Calculator found at http://webipm.ento.vt.edu/cew/ For cotton you should use the appropriate thresholds (conventional or genetically-protected) found in the 2013 Virginia Cooperative Extension Field Crops Pest Management Guide (beginning on page 4-108 found at http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/456/456-016/Section_4_Insects-11.pdf). Other insect chapters (soybean, peanut, sorghum, etc.) of the Field Crops Pest Management Guide, with appropriate thresholds, can be found at http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/456/456-016/456-016.html [More]
Aug-01-2013
Soybean (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Virginia distribution maps of kudzu bug and brown marmorated stink bug--Aug. 1, 2013
Attached (click "More") are the Virginia distribution maps for kudzu bug and brown marmorated stink bug as of Aug. 1, 2013. We will continue to provide updates throughout the season. Thanks to our scouts Ed Seymore, Jamie Hogue, and staff at the Tidewater AREC for their hard work and reports. Additional assistance from Virginia Cooperative Extension ANR Agents, Virginia Tech faculty and staff, Wayne Gardner (Univ. of Georgia), and others is greatly appreciated. [More]
Jul-25-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap counts for the week ending July 25, 2013
Please see the attached document containing this week's average nightly captures of corn earworm moths and brown marmorated stink bugs in area black light traps. Thanks to trap operators Mary Beahm, Keith Balderson, Mike Parrish, Laura Maxey, Chris Drake, David Moore, Ames Herbert and crew, Mark Kraemer, Kelvin Wells, Helene Doughty, Jim Jenrette, and Scott Reiter for the information they provided this week. [More]
Jul-23-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late Blight of Tomato found in Floyd and Montgomery Cos., Virginia
Please see the attached disease alert on the recent discovery of late blight in Virginia, unfortunately, our first report of the year. [More]
Jul-22-2013
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Invitation to the 2013 Pre-Harvest Field Crops Tour (Sep. 12, 2013)
The Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center will hold its 2013 Pre-Harvest Field Crops Tour during the morning of Thursday, September 12, 2013. Please see the pdf attachment for additional details (click More), and note that pre-registration is required (please see the attachment for pre-registration instructions). Also on the attachment are details concerning Dr. Phipps' disease tour, and Dr. Balota's sorghum tour. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 am and 4:30 pm to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event. [More]
Jul-18-2013
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Table with insecticides available for control of bollworm and stink bugs in cotton
We had a request to develop a list of the insecticides available for managing bollworm and stink bugs in cottonsprays that will go out over the next few weeks. The reason is that with the many products, both single and mixed active ingredients (ai) and different amounts of ai per gallon, it is very confusing and hard for growers to make good selections. Making the best product choice means knowing what the active ingredients are, what they are designed to kill, and how much product is needed to apply enough ai per acre to achieve good results. The attached table provides that information. It was a collaborative effort and included input from Jack Bacheler and Dominic Reisig at NCSU. Please note that not all products are included and that the rates on the table are from the product labels. Hopefully this information will be useful. [More]
Jul-18-2013
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton insect situation update
Things are pretty quiet in cotton pest-wise with the exception of scattered fields with spider mites and reports (mostly from northeast North Carolina) of pockets of plant bug activity. We are not used to seeing spider mites in wet years and do not really understand the why. I have seen this in the past and have a couple of observations. One is that under these conditions it is very hard to achieve perfect control of spider mites regardless of the products used, but, mite injury is not a great concern since plants are vigorously growing. My recommendation is to hold off on treating unless 1) rainfall amounts decrease and we begin to see some drought stress, or 2) mite injury gets so bad that otherwise healthy leaves (mid and upper canopy) start to drop due to intense feeding. Injury to and dropping of lower leaves is not really to concerning as these lower leaves are not as important to overall plant health and will be shed in the natural maturing process. We are not seeing much evidence of plant bugs in the fields we are checking, and not hearing about much from others. We assess plant bug activity by checking for bugs and determining percent square retention. Plant bugs target squares and feeding results in shed. The danger point is reached if retention drops below 80-85 percentand the fields we have checked have greater than 90% retention. At this point most cotton in Virginia is into the flowering stage. Once flowering begins, we shift our emphasis to boll protection. We will follow with more specific advice in the next few weeks.
Jul-18-2013
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Kudzu bug is rapidly becoming a major challenge in the Virginia soybean crop
At this point, we have officially entered a new phase in the kudzu bug saga with at least two fields known to have very high numbersone each in Isle of Wight and Culpeper Countiesand both need to be treated with insecticide. Most of the infestations seem to be confined to field edges or corners of fields. That being the case, we are recommending spot treatmentsknowing that some fields are small enough that whole field treatment makes more sense. In general on the statewide level, kudzu bugs have cycled through the overwintering adult stage, have laid egg masses, and nymphs have hatchedat least this appears to be the case in the fields we have visited. We think the few adults we are seeing are second generation adults that will set up another cycle of nymphs. We are relying on thresholds imported from the researchers in the south. I am most concerned about fields in the flowering or pod development stages and the threshold for those fields is an average of one nymph per sweep (15/15 sweeps). Again, we are now seeing a limited number of fields at or above threshold but I anticipate that 1) there are likely a lot more at threshold but not indentified since many fields are not being checked, and 2) many more fields are going to hit threshold before the season is completed. We are trying to stay abreast of this situation and will keep updating our advisories.
Jul-18-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm (CEW) update and pyrethroid vial testing results, to date
CEW activity is low compared to this time in previous years. We have not captured many moths in our pheromone traps and even fewer in black light traps. We know that CEW populations are usually low in generally wet years, which is what we are experiencing this year, so the pattern seems to fit. This can changequickly, depending on weather patterns. We are initiating our annual field corn survey to document the infestation level, which will help predict the infestation level growers can expect in subsequent crops. Many VCE Ag Agents across much of eastern/central Virginia are cooperating on this survey and we hope to have it completed by the end of July. The situation with pyrethroid sensitivity is developing quickly. To date we have tested 188 moths with the AVT (adult vial test) pyrethroid challenge with an overall survival rate of about 17%. This is a relatively high level for this early in the season. How will this progress? Time will tell.
Jul-18-2013
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Generally low levels of insect/mite pressure in peanut
Compared to past years, we seem to be in a low cycle for many peanut pests. For example, not so many years ago it was pretty common to see rampant twospotted spider mite infestations turning large areas of peanut fields yellow, then brown. Dr. Rick Brandenburg at NCSU and I spent a lot of time in those years developing what at the time was the most effective management strategy: first miticide application at early detection followed by a second in 5-7 days. It took this two-spray system to break the mite egg-laying cycle and stop the infestation. Where have the mites gone? We see a few in fields every year but even in dry years we just do not encounter many really bad infestations. Lets hope this holds because if we do start having problems, we have almost no control products available. The two general rule-of-thumb practices to lower risk to spider mites are 1) to use insecticides sparingly and only as needed, and 2) prevent mowing or burn down of weedy field edges during the high risk months of July and August. Another pest that seems to be in a slack phase is the potato leafhopper. You can certainly find hoppers and some evidence of hopper burn in a lot of fields but it is pretty rare to see fields that are badly injured. During the heavy infestation years we ramped up field trials and were able to develop a decent plant injury threshold based on the relationship of percent of leaves showing hopper burn and pod yield. Results showed that yields began to be affected (reduced) when injury exceeded 20-25 percent of leaves. That is, some hopper burn is tolerable and will not cause any yield reduction, but there is turning point. Where are the badly injured hopper fields? Not easy to find these days and hopefully that will not change. Scout fields in July and August and tank mix an insecticide with a leafspot spray, but ONLY if plants are approaching the injury threshold and hoppers are active. Southern corn rootworm (SCR) has received a lot of attention this summer because of the overall wet conditions that favor this soil pest. Many comments relating to SCR management were recently posted by Dr. Brandenburg and we are on the same page so no need to restate. I do have a couple of additional observations. Even in recent moderately wet years we have not been seeing or hearing of much rootworm injury. And in general, we are not seeing as many of the adult cucumber beetles flying in and around peanut fields as we used to. During years with more consistent pressure, Dr. Brandenburg and I did a lot of work to establish the Southern Corn Rootworm Risk Index as a system to determine which fields are at risk. In normal rainfall years, its a pretty effective management system. Although we see some variability in its effectiveness, chlorpyrifos (Losrban) is still the only insecticide available if control is needed. Corn earworm infestation intensity also varies from year to year with the general pattern of being worse in overall dry years and less of a problem in wet years. In my opinion however, corn earworm is only worth mentioning because many people spray for it, even though it is not an economic problem in peanuts. In the 25 years I have been working with the peanut crop, I can recall only ONE case where enough plant material was consumed by worms to result in a yield reductionand that was in a dry year when the peanut plants had not developed a large canopy. In most years when worms move into fields with full-canopy, knee-high plants, they cannot eat enough leaf tissue to be a threat. In summary, in general we seem to be in a quiet period for peanut insect/mite pests. Pressure by mites, hoppers and rootworms has been generally low in recent years and so far, we have not experienced the burrowing bug or three-cornered alfalfa hopper problems that plague some Georgia and South Carolina growers. We have also been lucky with lesser cornstalk borers. Of course this could all changein one year. So, feel luckybut stay vigilant and question the need for each and every insecticide spray.
Jul-18-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap counts for week ending July 18, 2013
Nightly averages for corn earworm moths captured in area black light traps for this week ranged from zero to 7.7; brown marmorated stink bugs ranged from zero to 13.5 per night. Please click "More" for the summary tables for these two pests. Thanks to our trap operators John Allison, Watson Lawrence, Mark Kraemer, Scott Reiter, Ames Herbert and crew, Helene Doughty, and Jim Jenrette for their reports this week. [More]
Jul-11-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
CEW/BMSB black light trap counts for week ending July 11, 2013
This week's corn earworm and brown marmorated stink bug black light trap counts are included in the attached table (a pdf document; please click the More button). Thanks to trap operators John Allison, Watson Lawrence, Mary Beahm, Mark Kraemer, Scott Reiter, Helene Doughty, Jim Jenrette, and Ames Herbert and the Tidewater AREC entomology crew for their reports this week. [More]
Jul-04-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
2nd Annual Eastern Shore Potato Field Workshop to be held July 10, 2013
Potato growers, you are welcome to attend the 2nd Annual Eastern Shore Potato Field Workshop to be held this Wednesday, July 10, 2013 4:00 pm7:00 pm 26996 Ocean Gateway Hebron, MD (near Salisbury, MD) Click More for the Meeting program [More]
Jul-03-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap catches for the week ending July 3, 2013
Average nightly black light trap catches for corn earworm moths were: Petersburg = 2.0/night; Warsaw = zero; New Kent = 4.3; Charles City = 4.7; Suffolk = 0.5; Painter = 0.9; Virginia Beach = zero. Brown marmorated stink bug nightly trap catch means were: Petersburg = 0.7; Warsaw = 0.2; New Kent = 0.6; Charles City = zero; Suffolk = zero; Painter = zero; Virginia Beach = 0.7. Thanks to our trap operators Mark Kraemer, Mary Beahm, John Allison, Ames Herbert, Jim Jenrette, and Helene Doughty for their reports this short week.
Jun-27-2013
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Kudzu bug update
As of this week (June 27, 2013), we have documented kudzu bug (KB) infestations in soybean fields in 20 counties. The problem is spreading quickly and almost daily I get word of an infestation in another county. For the sake of record, I will list them at the end of this advisory so if you find KBs in a soybean field in a county that is NOT on the list, please contact me with that information. If you are growing soybeans (or crop advising) in a county on the list, you should make the effort to check fields. Although adults are still present, nymphs are hatching from eggs masses and dispersing to stems and petioles. Adult KBs have a strong aggregation pheromone that results in clusters on individual plants with many plants not infested. This will begin to change as nymphs emerge. Their tendency is to disperse to new feeding sites, new plants or areas of plants which will result in a more widespread and more uniform infestation. As of this week, the nymphs we are seeing are quite small. You can see them with your naked eye, but it takes either really good vision (those days are over for me) or a hand lens to see that those tiny light colored things on stems are indeed KB nymphs. This too will change as they gradually grow and molt into larger nymphal instars. Based on all that we know, we should try to keep the management recommendations as simple as possible, trusting those that have done the researchthat using their recommendations will result in the best possible outcome: control at the least cost. As we move forward in the season, the best advice is to treat fields that are flowering or developing pods when an average of one nymph (big enough to see) is capture per sweep net sweepor, 15 nymphs in a 15-sweep sample. If this situation is encountered, we are advised to treat that field. Remember, this insect is a slow feedergradually drawing down a plants vigor. This is good in a way, as this gives us plenty of time to sample fields and react with a treatment if needed. KBs do not eat holes in leaves and do not take bites from pods or seed. You may find nymphs and second generation adults on pods, but the damage is not direct like a corn earworm that eats the seed or a stink bug that punctures the seed. This is a new pest for us and we will all have to learn how best to deal with it. For now, we should abide by the recommendations above. Given the number of infested fields, I fully expect that some will have to be treated, eventually. What about product choice. We have covered this in an earlier advisory. There are many good choices. The attached insecticide efficacy chart (hit the more button) was developed by researchers at Clemson University and University of Georgia. They (and I) do not recommend using any product that falls below 80% control, and the higher the better. I have been asked about a lot of products, some on this chart, some not. I go with the chart. Accomack Amelia Brunswick Sussex VA Beach Franklin (Co.) Appomattox Greensville Suffolk Charles City New Kent Southampton Dinwiddie Prince George Culpeper Orange Campbell Middlesex Isle of Wight Goochland [More]
Jun-27-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap report for week ending June 27, 2013
After several inquiries about whether kudzu bugs can be monitored using black light traps, Dr. Herbert and I have not heard that kudzu bugs come to these traps. The average nightly corn earworm moth catches from black light traps were: Petersburg = 0.4 per night; Suffolk = 0.1; Virginia Beach (Hampton Roads AREC) = 0.1; Charles City = 6.3; King William = 0.2; New Kent = 2.4; and Warsaw (Eastern Virginia AREC) = 0.4. The average nightly number of brown marmorated stink bugs were: Petersburg = 2.9; Suffolk = 0; Virginia Beach (Hampton Roads AREC) = 0.1; Charles City = 0; King William = 1.3; New Kent = 0.1; and Warsaw (Eastern Virginia AREC) = 0. Thanks to our trap operators Mark Kraemer, Ames Herbert and his entomology crew, Helene Doughty, John Allison, Laura Maxey, and Mary Beahm for their reports this week!
Jun-20-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late Blight in Virginia
Today we identified late blight on tomato plants on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The plants had recently been sprayed and were not sporulating actively. Growers should scout and take preventative measures. Hopefully drier conditions will suppress spread of the disease. Univ. of Maryland reports late blight of tomato in Montgomery Co., MD. Growers in the northern parts of the state should be alert as well.
Jun-20-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap catches for week ending June 20, 2013
Low numbers of corn earworm moths were reported this week from black light trap operators. Nightly averages were: Southampton = 0.3 (from C. Drake); Warsaw = 0.5 (M. Beahm); Petersburg = 1.3 (M. Kraemer); Suffolk = 0.1 (A. Herbert). Brown marmorated stink bugs were only found at the Petersburg trap (2.3 per night) [M. Kraemer], but they were captured in a Virginia Beach black light trap earlier this month (1.3 per night for June 7-13) [provided by H. Doughty]. Thanks to the above-mentioned trap operators for their reports this week.
Jun-13-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Insect pest/crop updates for the week if June 10-14, 2013.
Thrips Update Thrips season is over for cotton. With the recent rains and hot weather, most plants are growing into the 4-5 leaf stage past the time when thrips can do economic damage. Peanuts are still under some pressure and I think we are going to see one more week of pretty heavy pressure. The insecticide seed treatment provided good protection early in the infestation cycle, but needed a foliar overspray to carry through to the end. Kudzu bug update Kudzu bug is increasing its range and adults have now been sited in 9 new (2013) counties reaching from the southeastern mostVirginia Beachto the northernmostFrederick Co.areas of the state. Infestations in soybean fields are now reported from 8 counties spanning most of the southern part of the state including VA Beach, Suffolk, Sussex, Greensville, Brunswick, Amelia, Appomattox, and Franklin Counties. Infestations are pretty similar across the region occurring in early planted fields where plants are in the 3-4 leaf stage, and are mostly adults and egg masses on scattered plants. Although some growers are anxious to make broadcast applications, we are urging them to hold off until we see what the nymphal populations are going to do. By next week, we will begin seeing how this problem is going to develop. Brown marmorated stink bug update All predictions are that we are going to experience larger infestations than last year. Folks in some of the Mid-Atlantic States are already reporting black light trap catches of 20 or so per night, which is pretty high for this time of the season. Soybean fields will not be at risk until plants reach the late R4-early R5 growth stages. We will provide updates as they become available.
Jun-13-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory
Attached is the latest VPDA. Thanks [More]
Jun-13-2013
Soybean (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Website to Monitor Soybean Rust
The recent rainy conditions and movement of Tropical Storm Andrea from south to north have increased the concern about soybean rust by area soybean producers. We will continue to scout for the disease and monitor its movement. Currently, the closest reports of soybean rust are in southern Georgia/Alabama. You can follow the movement of soybean rust at the USDA Public PIPE Website for SBR at: http://sbr.ipmpipe.org/
Jun-06-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory
Attached is the latest Virginia Potato Disease Advisory [More]
Jun-06-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Cucurbit Downy Mildew Found in NC
Please find the attached disease alert regarding the discovery of cucurbit downy mildew in NC. [More]
Jun-04-2013
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Program is Available for the Early Summer Row Crops Tour at the Tidewater AREC on June 6, 2013
The program for the June 6, 2013 "Early Summer Row Crops Tour" at the Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center's Hare Road Research Farm is attached. [More]
May-30-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Thrips Update/Cotton and Peanuts
A quick update on what I am seeing with thrips in cotton and peanutsthe problem is evolving slowly compared to previous years. Thrips numbers are still low for this time of year compared with previous years, and, we are not seeing a lot of damage to seedlings. This is especially true for peanuts. The seed and in-furrow treatments look very good, but there is not a lot of injury even on untreated peanuts. I know growers are tempted to make foliar applications, but I have not seen a single field where they would be justified. The injury will get worse, but maybe too late to cause much stress to plants. The situation is much the same in cottonlow level thrips infestations and not a lot of damage. The worst damage seems to be occurring not to the first true leaves, but to the second true leaf and third leaf bud. This is not the usual way this problem unfolds so I am not sure how it will play out. With a little more moisture and heatcotton will quickly reach the safe four + leaf stages.
May-30-2013
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Kudzu bugs now found infesting soybean fields in Virginia
The kudzu bug situation has very quickly become a real problem for Virginia soybean producers. We are getting reports of infestations in the South Boston area and one from near Yale in Sussex County. I am quite sure that there are more infested fields. The image sent to me from the Yale field showed at least a dozen KB adults on a single plant. WHAT IS THE THRESHOLD and WHEN SHOULD YOU TREAT??? The treatment threshold for full grown R-stage plants has not changed (see below), but I have new information on thresholds for seedling/vegetative stage plants. Based on an experiment in GA, they (and others) are recommending treating at V2-V3 stage at an average of 5 bugs (adults and/or nymphs) per plant. The threshold increases to 10 bugs per plant for plants from 1-2 feet tall. The established threshold of one nymph per sweep (one swoosh of the net) should be used for plants above 2 feet tall. Plants should be sampled at least 50 feet from the edge of the field. The reason for this is that the adults have an extended migration period (6-8 weeks) and colonize field edges first. If you sample the edges, chances are you will make a spray decision too soon before the migration is over. They stress that these thresholds are PRELIMINARY and will absolutely change as we get more information. Here is a cautionary tale provided by Dr. Reisig at NCSUA NC grower noticed kudzu bugs on the edge of his April-planted beans in May 2012. They had not yet infested the interior portions of the field. He opted to spray. He then had to spray again in June, as the adults remigrated into the field. Additionally, sprays dont kill eggs, so these hatched into nymphs. The grower then had to spray a 3rd time in June, as spider mites were flared in the field from the lack of beneficial insects. We want to avoid these costly situations while still preserving our yield. Off and running.
May-24-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late blight found near Winchester, VA in West Virginia
Late blight has been found in a tomato greenhouse operation just across the state line near Winchester, VA. We are working to get more information and samples. In the meantime, potato and tomato growers in that part of the Commonwealth are urged to take preventative measures and scout their crops. The cool and rainy weather has provided a conducive climate for spread of this disease. For information on late blight please visit the following extension publication and please let me know if you have any questions or encounter any suspicious samples: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/ANR/ANR-6/ANR-6_pdf.pdf
May-20-2013
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Early Season Adult Kudzu Bug Activity is Alarming
We are almost certainly going to have some problems with kudzu bug (KB) in soybean fields this summer. Why? We have been getting very early reports of adults from several southeastern counties for at the past several weeks (including Suffolk, Isle of Wight, Sussex, Dinwiddie, Greensville and Prince George). Likely they are much more wide spread. Adults are good fliers and land on clothing, vehicles, houses and other plants. Attached (hit the more button) is an image just forwarded by Scott Reiter in Prince George County of adults that were found on a fig tree. Dr. Jeremy Greene (Entomologist, Clemson) shared that....KBs can be numerous on fig trees. Although they are undoubtedly feeding to some extent, we do not think they are an issue on fig trees. We are recommending that they be sprayed with soapy water or insecticidal soap on these transient hosts in yards as they cause a nuisance. Dish washing detergent will kill or run them off. As you may recall, last summer in our Virginia soybean field surveillance program we observed adult KBs in soybean fields in 16 or so counties but not until well into the season. We reckoned that those adults had migrated from the south. A few nymphs were also found in a couple of locations. No fields became infested at treatable levels. By contrast, this years very early adult activity means fields are at much greater risk. According to the folks in South Carolina and Georgia who have been working with kudzu bug since its first occurrence in soybean in 2009, this very early adult activity means a couple of significant thingsone, the adults we are seeing now overwintered (in the adult stage) locally. This is a much different picture than what we had last summer and likely means we are at the beginning of having to manage them in fields. And two, they will begin to invade soybean fields as soon as they start flowering. Most alarming is the report and image I just received (May 22) from Jim Oliver (Monsanto) that shows a volunteer soybean plant from the South Boston area covered with KB nymphs. This is the first record of a heavy nymphal infestation on soybean in Virginia. The nymphs are congregating on some of the 8-10 inch tall volunteer soybeans but not (yet) on the newly planted beans in that field that are about 3 inches tall. My advice was to wait to see if they move to the planted crop before making a control decision. Fortunately, we do not have to reinvent the wheel in terms of management recommendationsjust stick with what has been developed in Georgia and South Carolina where they have had a couple of years of experience and research. First, infestations are most likely to be encountered in the earliest planted, full season, earliest maturity group soybean fields as those will be the first to flower. Second, the threshold is based on numbers of nymphs, NOT adult activity. Basically, we need to key on the nymphal stage of this insect in soybeans. Fields should be treated when the average reaches one nymph per sweep net sweep or if nymphs are easily found on stems, leaf petioles or leaves. Because there are only two complete generations per year, we should be able to control the nymphs for each generation and control population development. Third, there are several good insecticide options for controlling KB. We will provide more detail on these in future Advisories. These recommendations as well as good images of the different insect stages (egg, nymph, adult) are located in a kudzu bug field guide produced by Clemson University, University of Georgia and the United Soybean Board available online at: http://digital.turn-page.com/i/87846 Our advice, begin checking any soybean fields where plants have emerged, especially if you are located in the south central part of the state. [More]
May-15-2013
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Reminder: Tidewater AREC's Early-Summer Row Crops Tour on morning of Thursday, June 6, 2013
The Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center will hold an early-summer row crops tour during the morning of Thursday, June 6, 2013. The tour will be held at the Centers Research Farm (1045 Hare Road, Suffolk, VA). Specialists will display field research in progress and will present information for the 2013 crop season. Speakers and topics will include Dr. Ames Herbert (Thrips Management in Cotton/Peanuts and Tour of Research Plots); Dr. Maria Balota (Use of Genomics and Physiology in Crop Improvement); Dr. Hunter Frame (Soil Fertility Research in Virginia Cotton); Dr. Pat Phipps (Fungicides Boost Wheat Yield) (New Tools for Peanut and Cotton Disease Control); and Dr. David Holshouser (Oats as an Alternative Cover Crop). Robert Christian of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services will conclude the tour with a pesticide safety review. Commercial pesticide applicator recertification credits will be offered in Categories 1-A (Agricultural Plant Pest Control), 1-C (Fumigation of Soil and Agricultural Products), and 10 (Demonstration & Research Pest Control), and Registered Technician (category 60). We have applied to offer Certified Crop Adviser Continuing Education credits, and plan to apply to offer Private Applicator Recertification Credits. All interested in commercial production of field crops are invited to attend. There is no preregistration and no fee for attending this tour. Arrival is at 8:30 am with the program starting promptly at 9:00 am and running through lunch (courtesy of Berry Lewis with Bayer CropScience). More information is available through local Virginia Cooperative Extension offices or by contacting the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center main office at 757-657-6450. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 am and 4:30 pm to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event.
May-13-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - Late Blight Alert
All Attached is this week's Virginia Potato Disease Advisory. Thanks Steve [More]
Apr-16-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Besiege labeled for use in soybeans
Besiege by Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC has a new supplemental label that includes soybean. It is a RESTRICTED USE insecticide that contains 0.835 lb ai/gallon of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) and 0.417 lb ai/gallon of the anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole (Coragen). This will be a good fit for soybean as the combined activities of the two active ingredients will provide control of a broad spectrum of pests. Many insect pests are on the label. For the most commonly encountered pests in Virginia, rates for corn earworm, bean leaf beetle and threecornered alfalfa hopper are 5  8 oz/acre; 8  10 oz/acre for stink bugs and grasshoppers, and 10 oz/acre for soybean looper and beet armyworm. Before use, be sure to check the label for use restrictions.
Apr-03-2013
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Invitation to the Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC "Early Summer Row Crops Tour" on June 6, 2013
The Early Summer Row Crops Tour will be held at the Tidewater AREC Research Farm (1045 Hare Road, Suffolk, VA) on Thursday, June 6, 2013. There is no preregistration and no fee for attending this tour. The program will begin promptly at 9:00 am and will conclude with lunch (courtesy of Berry Lewis with Bayer CropScience). All interested in commercial production of field crops are invited to attend. We will provide further details once the agenda is finalized. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 am and 4:30 pm to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event.
Feb-14-2013
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Josh Freeman
Virus issues in Virginia Strawberries
The following is a document containing the current situation of virus infected strawberry plants in Virginia. [More]
Feb-01-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Oversite in Acknowledgements
We very much regret the oversight in not listing the following companies in the acknowledgements section of our annual report, 2012 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut and Soybean, AREC-37NP: AMVAC, FMC and BASF. Funding for our program is critical as are the valuable collaborations and partnerships we have with many companies and their representatives. I hate that we slipped up on this and we apologize. We are looking forward to a new season and are already making plans for a productive season. Thank you for your support of our insect pest management program. Ames Herbert
Jan-30-2013
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Ames Herbert's 2012 annual research summary book now available online
Ames Herbert's annual research summary book, "2012 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean," is now available on the Virginia Cooperative Extension website: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/AREC/AREC-37/AREC-37.html (the publication number is AREC-37NP). It is a 3MB pdf file. Thanks to all those who supported our entomological research program in 2012.
Nov-07-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Prevathon is now approved by EPA for use on soybean
Dupont has received EPA approval to add soybeans and oilseed crops (including sunflowers and canola) to the Prevathon® label. Pending state registrations we expect to have Prevathon® available for the soybean, sunflower and canola crops for the 2013 growing season. Prevathon is the active ingredient chlorantaniliprol and has excellent activity against lep pests including corn earworm, armyworm species and others.
Oct-19-2012
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
i'm sorry, I forgot to include Dr. John Tooker's contact information
Hi everyone. Dr. John Tooker's email: tooker@psu.edu. He does want your comments. Again, my apologies.
Oct-18-2012
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
Deadline bullets on EPA chopping block (read Dr. Tookers article below)
Metaldehyde (Deadline products) labeled use in corn and soybeans in jeopardy One of the reasons that slugs are such a challenge in no-till field crops is the lack of commercially available pest management tools. Among the few viable options for slug control are metaldehyde-based baits, the best well known of which are the Deadline products (e.g., Deadline Bullets and Deadline Mini-Pellets), but others are available. The active ingredient metaldehyde is produced by a European company called Lonza and needs periodic re-registration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The latest re-registration is underway, and we recently learned that Lonza has decided to let corn and soybeans drop from the label. The IR-4 Project (which facilitates registration of pest management tools; http://ir4.rutgers.edu/) has submitted a petition to EPA to establish tolerances on these and other commodities (which would allow their continued registration on the metaldehyde label), but in the near future it could be that growers would not be allowed to use metaldehyde-based products to protect their corn and soybean fields for perhaps a year or two until the EPA publishes a final rule on the proposed tolerances. Since learning of this problem, various organizations including IR4, AMVAC (the producer of Deadline products), and University-based and NRCS personnel have mobilized to try to maintain uninterrupted use of metaldehyde in corn and soybeans. Our efforts are directed toward the EPA, where the final decision lies. It is promising that such a range of voices have emerged in support of maintaining the current uses of metaldehyde, but it would be valuable for EPA to hear from growers and grower groups. If you have the energy to send them a note, please contact me by email or phone (814-865-7082) and I can help you make this happen. Contact Information John Tooker
Sep-19-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
New webcast on thrips as pests and vectors of TSWV on tomatoes
The Plant Management Network (PMN) has launched a new presentation in its Focus on Tomato webcast resource. This webcast is titled Thrips as Pests and Vectors of Tospoviruses in Tomato by George Kennedy, Professor of Agriculture and Entomology Department Head at North Carolina State University. Below my signature, you will find more details about this webcast and the Focus on Tomato resource. Please let your students, growers, consultants, and any other practitioners who may be interested know through email, ListServe, blog, enewsletter, or any other extension-focused communications that you see fit.. Feel free to reply or call 651-994-3859 if there is any more information I can provide. Kind Regards, Phil Bogdan Plant Management Network New Thrips Webcast Featured in Focus on Tomato As the primary vector for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), thrips are an important pest to keep at bay. This latest Focus on Tomato presentation, produced by The Plant Management Network will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners in the southern and western U.S. manage thrips and suppress virus incidence. This talk, authored by Dr. George Kennedy, Professor of Agriculture and Entomology Department Head at North Carolina State University, covers& - The biology of thrips and factors affecting their abundance - Some background information on TSWV - The roles of the tobacco thrips and western flower thrips in spread of TSWV - The use of insecticides, reflective plastic mulch, Actigard, and TSWV resistant cultivars in the management of thrips This presentation is open access through December 31, 2012 and can be viewed at http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/edcenter/seminars/tomato/ThripsTomato/. Users can view other recent webcasts in the Focus on Tomato resource at http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/fot. Focus on Tomato is a publication of the Plant Management Network (PMN), a nonprofit online publisher whose mission is to enhance the health, management, and production of agricultural and horticultural crops. It achieves this mission through applied, science-based resources. PMN is jointly managed by the American Society of Agronomy, American Phytopathological Society, and Crop Science Society of America. To take advantage of PMN's full line of resources, please sign up for its free online newsletter at: http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/update/default.cfm.
Sep-13-2012
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm AVT results, BMSB and Kudzu bug update....nearing the end
Our final batch of corn earworm moths showed only 26% survivorship, down from last week. This season results showed a 37% survival rate for the seasonal total which exceeds all previous years. We are now up to 33 counties where brown marmorated stink bugs were/are present in soybean fields. Most are at pretty low levels compared with last year, but they are much more widespread. This week n some have been found in soybean fields in north central North Carolina. We are taking as much data as we can to help with answers for next season. And, the first kudzu bug nymphs were found in Charlotte County. We are nearing the end of this season in terms of insect pests and advisories...a long summer for sure. [More]
Sep-13-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth and brown marmorated stink bug black light trap report for week ending Sep. 13, 2012
Please see the attached pdf document for this week's insect counts. [More]
Sep-06-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm/brown marmorated stink bug black light trap catches for week ending Sep. 6, 2012
Warsaw saw high corn earworm moth activity in their black light trap this week (average of 88 per night); other locations were under 11 per night. Brown marmorated stink bug reports ranged from zero to 5 per night. Please see the attached tables (pdf document) for more details. [More]
Aug-30-2012
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Brown marmorated stink bugs (BMSB) are infesting a lot of soybean fields and not playing by the rules
With our full complement of field scouts in place, more soybean fields are being found with BMSB infestations. We are up to 20 counties in Virginia (hit the more button to see the map) spread over a very large area of the state. Infestations were a little slow to develop compared with last year but we are predicting that by the end of the season, many more fields will be infested compared with last year. So far, most infestations are at low to moderate levels (from 2-3 to 4-6 per 15 sweeps) but a few are in the high infestation range 8-10 or more/15 sweeps. We know that sweep netting is not the ideal way to sample for these insects, but there is no other method other than simply easing into the field edge and counting what you see. Basically, if you can stand in one spot, do a 360 degree turn and count more than 5 or 6, that area needs protection. So, how are they not playing by the rules? Last season, our first with treatable levels, bugs stayed on field edges and a single insecticide edge treatment provided season long control. This is true for many fields this year but in a few we are finding them deeper into fields, and, there are some cases where re-infestations are occurring in fields previously treated. The good news is that 1) based on our insecticide trials it is not difficult to kill them with several common products, and 2) many fields, especially the full season crop fields, are rapidly approaching the safe stage which based on previous field cage studies happens after R6 (full seed) when pod walls begin to toughen. Many growers are treating field edges this year and we are going to follow as many as possible to determine if those treatments worked and held. More on this as we progress. [More]
Aug-30-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap report for Aug. 30, 2012
Mean corn earworm moth captures ranged from 5 to 29 per night this week; brown marmorated stink bugs ranged from zero to 2 per night. Please see the attached pdf for each location. [More]
Aug-23-2012
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Soybean corn earworm, pyrethroid vial test results, brown marmorated stink bug and kudzu bug update
Where much of the cotton crop is pretty much bug-safe, much of the Virginia soybean crop is in the most vulnerable growth stage, R5-early R6, to corn earworms and stink bugs. Both of these pests have a preference for the tender, developing seed (the R5 stage) and many fields are in or near that stage. The good news is that for the most part, corn earworm and native stink bug populations (green stink bug and brown stink bug) seem to be pretty light and spotty. Most reports are in the 1-3 worm/15 sweep range, certainly not excessive pressure, and the moth flight seems to be in decline. Native stink bug infestations are also very light to the point that and we cannot locate any field with a lot of native stink bugs. Although many growers have or are treating fields, if scouted, they are seeing that many fields are not at thresholds. We sometimes have another late summer/early fall corn earworm flight which could result in some new worm infestations, but it if this does happen, most fields will be in the bug-safe late R6-R7 stage. A problem still exists with our adult pyrethroid vial test results. Last weeks sample reached 58% survivors, the highest level ever recorded for Virginia, and this weeks early sample was still at 50% survival. We have at least one report of lack of control in a soybean field treated with a pyrethroid (no need to mention any product names). If you are choosing a new product, a brand you are not familiar with, be sure to check the label to see what you are buying/spraying. There are some products that are a mix of two pyrethroids (no help if you are concerned about pyrethroid resistance). The problem story is with brown marmorated stink bugs. The more we look, the more we find. We are just now getting our scouts into the high risk counties in the northern and central areas. The reports show that many soybean fields in those counties (including Rockingham, Culpeper, Stafford, Madison and Orange Cos.) are infested at levels that need to be controlled. We do not have good thresholds or good sampling techniques for brown marmorated stink bug. It is almost impossible to get a good sample with a sweep net because they startle easily and drop to the ground quickly. But we do have data from last year that shows how damaging they can be to soybeans in the infested areas. The best we can offer now is that if you can visually see several bugs on the upper leaves, there are MANY more down in the canopy feeding on seed. Like last year, field edge treatment seems to be all that is needed as the bugs are staying in the first 50 or so feet of the field edge. Edge treating (one spray boom width) was effective last year, and we are working to document the outcome (hopefully success) of this strategy again this year. Kudzu bugs have not been reported in any new counties since our last pest advisory, but we do have reports of some egg masses in a couple of locations. We will likely see some nymphs soon in some fields, but time will tell if we get into any treatment situations. The later nymphs occur the lower the risk that they will develop into high populations, or that they will be able to cause any appreciable damage to plants. More next week as we progress with our scouting effort.
Aug-23-2012
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
The status of the insect pests of cotton in Virginia
Most cotton in Virginia planted before mid May has blooms at the tops of plants, has mature bolls and is safe from further damage by stink bugs or bollworms. Local estimates are that this describes about 75% of the acreage. The remaining 25% planted after May 15 has not cut out yet and still has some insect-susceptible bolls, but percentage of susceptible bolls on a plant goes down each day as more bolls mature. Most fields, whether BG2 or WideStrike, have been treated one time for bollworms/stink bugs. In most years, this single treatment is sufficient for protection until harvest. But each year is different. This year summer rainfall patterns and some relatively cooler temperatures in recent days have slowed maturity a bit, especially the later planted fields. Whereas in most years by this time we can find some open bottom bolls, few are visible this week. So, early planted cotton is safe, but late planted cotton needs to be scouted for another few weeks, and may require a second treatment. What about top-crop growth? We are not expecting a lot of new top-crop growth but it can happen. Late season top-crop growth is most common in summers when cotton is heat/drought stressed during the summer and cuts out early, then begins regrowth as a response to late August early September rain. This was the case in a lot of fields last year. This top-crop presents a new set of insect susceptible bolls that is very attractive to the final seasons generation or worms and stink bugs. But in most cases, the top-crop does not have enough lint potential to warrant another insecticide treatment.
Aug-23-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm and brown marmorated stink bug black light trap captures for week ending Aug. 23, 2012
This week's numbers of CEW moths and BMSB are attached, please click "More" for the tables. In general, numbers of both pests were down this week. [More]
Aug-22-2012
Field Corn (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Good news for 2013 planting season
"Syngenta receives EPA registration for 2 convenient refuge in a bag trait stacks featuring top performing insect control." Agrisure Viptera® 3220 E-Z Refuge® " trait stack offers dual modes of action for control of multiple above-ground lepidopteran pests and corn borer. Agrisure® 3122 E-Z Refuge trait stack is intended for use in areas where corn rootworm and lepidopteran pest management are primary concerns. Products feature 5 percent blended refuge in a bag for convenience and easy compliance. What the 2 traits have in common: glyphosate tolerance, and in cotton-growing regions, you will need to plant a supplemental 20 percent refuge. The 2 traits will be available from Syngenta's Garst®, Golden Harvest® and NK® seed brands for the 2013 planting season.
Aug-16-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Kudzu bug and brown marmorated stink bug Virginia distribution map--Aug 16, 2012
Our scouts have added a few more counties to the kudzu bug and BMSB Virginia distribution map. Please see the attached pdf for more details. [More]
Aug-16-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth and brown marmorated stink bug black light trap captures (week ending Aug. 16, 2012)
Average nightly black light trap catch tables for corn earworm moth and brown marmorated stink bug are attached as a single pdf document. [More]
Aug-16-2012
Soybean (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Resistance management of corn earworm
The attached 4-page pdf contains information on this year's corn earworm moth vial tests, resistance management suggestions, links to Dr. Herbert's corn earworm threshold calculator and his soybean chapter in the 2012 Virginia Cooperative Extension Pest Management Guide, a list of insecticides registered for use in soybean, and the results of Dr. Herbert's 2011 corn earworm efficacy trials in soybean. Please click "More" to view this document. [More]
Aug-09-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap averages for week ending Aug. 9, 2012
BMSB trap catches were low in most locations, except Petersburg (13.9/night) and Warsaw (2.8/night). Mark Kraemer, Entomologist at Virginia State University, reported that he was seeing BMSB adults and second instars in Asian Long Beans, and mentioned that a co-worker found some adults on vegetable soybean along a field edge next to the woodline. Prince George-Disputanta had been getting zero's this season, but this week averaged 0.9 per night. Isle of Wight had a suspected BMSB captured in its trap; we are in the process of confirming the species. Please see the table (attached pdf file) for more details. [More]
Aug-09-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for the week ending Aug. 9, 2012
We are fortunate to have added several new black light traps in the past few weeks, including ones in Surry County (Glenn Slade), Isle of Wight (Janet Spencer), and Virginia Beach-West Neck (Roy Flanagan). Moth counts averaged from 3 to 26 per night this past week; please see the attached table (pdf file) for more details. [More]
Aug-09-2012
Soybean (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Kudzu bug and brown marmorated stink bug distribution map--Aug. 9, 2012
Dr. Herbert mentioned these items in his Aug. 8 advisory; here is the distribution map for kudzu bug (host crops = kudzu and/or soybean) and BMSB (host crop = soybean), attached as a pdf file. Thanks to the following scouts for their efforts: Ed Seymore, Jamie Hogue, Tami Carlow, and the Entomology Crew at the Tidewater AREC. [More]
Aug-09-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm resistance monitoring update for Aug. 9, 2012
Resistance monitoring results for this week in Suffolk (based on 222 vials tested) indicated 30.1% of corn earworm moths surviving the 24-hour exposure period to cypermethrin. This brings the seasonal average to 38.2% survival (1,586 vials tested). The 2011 and 2012 line graphs are attached as a pdf. [More]
Aug-08-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm, stink bug and kudzu bug update
The pyrethroid vial tests are still showing high levels of corn earworm survivorship. Thursday, Sean Malone will post the line graph including this weeks vial test totals, but as of now, we are still getting about 45% survivors. This is important to consider when selecting insecticides for worm control in soybean fields. We are now beginning to see corn earworms feeding on young pods in some fields. In others, we are not finding any, or just a few. Each field is a separate case and each should be sampled to determine if earworms are present in numbers that warrant treatment. You can find earworms in many peanut fields, but as stated earlierif you want to treat them, consider it to be recreational, not economic. We have been sampling sorghum heads for worms this week in four different locations and all but one have levels worm levels that exceed the 1 worm/head threshold. Some samples reached 30-55 per 10 heads, way over threshold. Products labeled for worm control in sorghum are limited (at least all we could find) to Baythroid, Karate/Warrior, Lannate, Mustang Max or Blackhawk (the new Tracer). Of those, Lannate will give the quickest kill but has essentially no residual activity. But, residual activity should not be an issue. If worms are killed, heads will be matured beyond attractiveness before any additional worm infestations would occur. The pyrethroids should also do pretty well, unless pyrethroid resistance becomes an issue in sorghum and we are not sure about that. If spraying sorghum, only the heads need to be treated, not the foliage, so use a sprayer configuration/gallons/pressure that directs as much spray as possible to the heads. That is where the action is. Brown marmorated stink bug populations are still very slow to develop across the state, at least as best we can determine. Since last week, we have added three new counties where low numbers have been found in soybeans: Essex, Appomattox, and Louisa Counties. We are tracking these to see if treatments may be needed. Like last year, we are going to recommend and strongly encourage field edge treatments. Kudzu bug encounters have slowed and we have added only one of two new counties, Suffolk for one. We are still only finding low numbers of adults and no eggs or nymphs. Hopefully we will not experience any outbreaks.
Aug-02-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug nightly black light trap catches for week ending Aug. 2, 2012
BMSB nightly black light trap catches are provided in the attached table. Petersburg recorded high numbers again this week. [More]
Aug-02-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap catches for week ending Aug. 2, 2012
Please see the attached table for average corn earworm moth nightly black light trap catches. [More]
Aug-02-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth resistance monitoring graphs
As Dr. Herbert mentioned in his Aug. 1 advisory, the percentage of corn earworm moths surviving the adult pyrethroid vial tests exceeded 50% last week and is at 44% this week. Attached are the 2011 and 2012 graphs in pdf format. [More]
Aug-01-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Update on soybean, peanut and cotton insect pests: corn earworm, beet armyworm and kudzu bugs
SOYBEANS Many soybean fields are being treated for loopers this year. There are worms in fields, but most are green cloverworms with a few yellowstriped armyworms, soybean loopers and even a few beet armyworms mixed in. Folks are seeing more leaf feeding than they are used to seeing and with the high bean prices, are pulling the spray trigger. My opinion is that in a great majority of cases, these sprays are not going to pay any benefits. Soybeans can stand a lot of leaf feeding, up to 30-40% up until blooming and 20% or so after bloom. People only see the top leaves where most of the leaf feeding is occurring and are not inspecting the whole plant, so are greatly overestimating the problem. We recommend pulling a few plants and estimating the TOTAL leaf loss considering ALL the leaves on the plant. If you do this easy exercise, you may find that a field that looks bad may only have 5% to 10% actual defoliation. If a field has been treated, the best advice now is to be sure to scout that field beginning about a week after the spray. Those treatments will have eliminated the beneficial insects so any corn earworm eggs laid after that time will have a near perfect hatch rate. That is, any treated fields are now at much higher risk for earworm outbreaks when pods start formingand based on the diversity in corn field maturities, we are expecting LONG moth flight for at least 2 to 3 more weeks. There are areas on the Eastern Shore that are experiencing high levels of beet armyworm in soybeans and we are hearing of a few in this area of the state. But the same principles apply. Treat beet armyworm as just one of the many possible leaf feeders and only spray if defoliation levels reach the recommended percentages. KUDZU BUGS As of this week, we have found adult kudzu bugs in soybean fields in 14 counties (Amelia, Brunswick, Dinwiddie, Greensville, Halifax, Henry, Isle of Wight, Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Nottoway, Patrick, Pittsylvania, Southampton, and Sussex). My guess is that fields in many more counties are infested but we just have not had the time to check more. That will change. We have just added two more (three total) very competent field scouts to focus on mid-central and upper central counties. To date, no kudzu bug eggs or nymphs have been found. The folks to the south tell us that it is just a matter of time before we do. We will keep providing updates. UPDATE ON CORN EARWORM PYRETHROID VIALS Last week an average of 50% of corn earworm moths tested survived the pyrethroid treated vial exposure. So far this week, the rate has dropped a little to 44% (53 dead of 120 tested). More will be tested this week for next weeks report. PEANUTS A mix of corn earworms and a few beet armyworms are now showing up in peanut fields. Most or our peanut fields have A LOT of leaf canopy and can withstand A LOT of worm feeding before treatments will pay. Thresholds are set at 4 worms (corn earworm, beet armyworm, or fall armyworm) per foot of row. Few fields will actually reach these high levels. Many more will be treated with no real benefit. COTTON We are seeing more fields this week at the old bollworm egg threshold which would trigger sprays on any conventional cotton not protected with Bollgard2 or Widestrike. BG2 and WS fields could benefit from a treatment by next week, at least according to what we have learned over the past several years of field research. If a field does not get infested with bollworms, and we do find some each year, be sure to keep checking for stink bug damage until the 7th or 8th week of bloom. Most fields are still in the most critical stink bug feeding weeks (3rd, 4th and 5th weeks of bloom) so need to be protected if internal boll damage exceeds 10% to new bolls. If bollworm sprays include a high pyrethroid rate, they will be also protect against stink bugs.
Aug-01-2012
Field Corn (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Results of the 2012 corn earworm survey
With the help of many Virginia Cooperative Extension Agents, Virginia Tech faculty and staff, and volunteers, Dr. Herbert has completed his annual corn earworm survey of field corn. This survey is a good indicator of upcoming moth pressure in other crops such as soybean, cotton, and peanut. The full report is contained in the attached pdf document. [More]
Jul-30-2012
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Invitation to the 2012 Pre-harvest Field Crops Tour at the Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC
The Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center will hold its annual pre-harvest field crops tour on Thursday, September 20, 2012. Registration begins at 7:30 am at the Research Farm (1045 Hare Road, Suffolk, VA). PRE-REGISTRATION IS REQUIRED--please see the attached flyer for more details. A lunch will follow the pre-harvest field crops tour. Also, please see on the flyer that Drs. Phipps and Balota will hold additional tours that afternoon. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 am and 4:30 pm to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event. [More]
Jul-26-2012
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Bollworm eggs are in cotton fieldswhat is the best approach for treatments?
In cotton, we are beginning to find corn earworm (=bollworm) eggs in fields. This fits what we would expect given the increase in moth activity. This is a little earlier than normal. Over the past several years, we have seen egg lay start during the first week of August. I suggest that any sprays from this time forward should be directed to bollworm and stink bug. In the past, we have been able to get good control of bollworms in BG2 or Widestrike cotton varieties with a single application of a pyrethroid at the highest labeled rate for that product. Pyrethroids are also picking up most of any stink bugs that could be present. We time the application to coincide with what used to be the second spray in the old (pre-BG cotton days) egg threshold two-spray system (first app at egg threshold, the second in 5-7 days). A treatment 5-7 days after the old egg threshold is designed to target any worms that have escaped the Bt toxins, but would still be small enough to kill with the pyrethroids before doing any significant boll damage. Up until now (at least based on data up to 2011), the single high rate pyrethroid treatment has remained effective in cotton because (in my opinion), if timed correctly they are directed to a small number of small larvaeeasier to kill and fewer to kill. We have field trials in place to continue monitoring this.
Jul-26-2012
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm pyrethroid vial test is showing very high survivorship
percentagesimplications for treatments in soybean At the time of this report, we have tested 109 corn earworm moths this week. These moths represent the front edge of the large second generation flight from corn. The results are not good. The first batch of 49 moths had 49% survivorship and the second batch of 60 moths had 53% survivorship. We have another 150 moths in vials to be assessed tomorrow (Friday). What does this mean? This confirms what I thought we might see based on previous years patternswith survivorship percentages peaking in late July/early August. If corn earworm flights are heavy and large worm infestations set up in soybean fields, non-pyrethroids will need to be tank-mixed with pyrethroids (which are still recommended to control whatever stink bugs may be present). We have had success with several pyrethroid tank mix options including with Belt, Steward, and Orthene. I was asked about Lannate. Lannate is an effective product against corn earworm but I have not tested whether it will tank mix with a pyrethroid. If you choose this option, you should jar-test the mix before loading your spray tank. Also, although effective, Lannate has a very short residual activity period24 hours, unless it rains. If the worm infestations do not develop to high levels, the pyrethroids will probably still do a decent jobapply them only at the highest labeled rate.
Jul-26-2012
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Beet armyworms are hitting soybeans in huge numbers
Below is an advisory provided by Bill Shockley, Virginia Coop. Extension Ag Agent in Northampton County (southern most county on the Del-Mar-Va Peninsula). This is a traditional vegetable and potato growing county so insect pests are often different from what we find on the mainland. But Bills comments are insightful. And, we also have reports of some beet armyworm infestations in Virginia Beach soybean fields From Bill Shockley: We are finding a large number of beet armyworms in young soybeans in Northampton County, Virginia. They are especially prevalent in soybean fields planted double crop after potatoes, string beans and other spring planted vegetable crops. These insects are foliage feeders and will severely damage leaves and stems of young soybean, lima bean and string beans plants. Traditional spray applications of pyrethroid insecticides have been generally ineffective in the past for controlling these pests. Labeled applications of Steward, Belt or Lannate have provided the only significant control of these insects. We are also beginning to find generally low numbers of corn earworms in soybeans in some areas. As soybeans begin to blossom, and pod formation begins, these insects will become more of an economic problem in this crop. It is vitally important to begin scouting for these insects at this time. The timing of chemical control applications for these pests is very important to assure maximum control and limit unnecessary production costs.
Jul-26-2012
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Peanut rootworm update from Rick Brandenburg at NCSU
See below a note from Dr Rick Brandenburg at NCSU regarding southern corn rootworm in peanut. In general, Virginia has had less rainfall than what Rick is reporting from NC so our risk to rootworms is less, but his insigts are helpful. From Rick Brandenburg, NCSU: The past week, Ive received a lot of calls on a lot of different topics, but the most common question focused on southern corn rootworm. Many of the others were on worms in peanuts. The typical question, which was a very good one, focused on whether peanuts were at greater risk from rootworms this year due to the wet weather weve had recently and the fact that some of our peanuts are a little late. This is not information that shows up directly in the rootworm advisory, but the questions you ask show a great understanding of the index and the factors that affect rootworms. Yes, the above normal rainfall is making rootworms more of a threat and even lighter, sandier soils could support rootworms with this kind of weather. So if you have a marginal field, the rains have probably moved the risk up a notch. Weve got a lot of good looking peanuts out there and some of them are late. This lateness makes them at more risk from rootworms as well as the larvae prefer to attack the smaller, more immature pods. The word that Ive been passing along is that if you have a good crop, the fields have been and remain on the wet side, and/or the crop is a little late, then the risk is higher than the index rating you will have. How much higher is a guess, but it is higher this year. Given the fact that the threat from spider mites seems minimal right now and that weve had quite a few leafhoppers out there, the use of Lorsban (chlorpyrifos) or a generic seems like a pretty good idea in many fields. Since it is about August 1, growers could consider going with a half rate. Rootworm treatments are a bit of a guessing game each year, but the wet weather makes it a bit less, but no guarantees. I would hate to see some of these good peanuts weve got out there get dug this fall and have a lot of damage. Thats my personal judgment.
Jul-25-2012
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Spider mite update from Joanne Whalen at Univ of Delaware
We are getting a few calls about spider mites in soybean. Following is an update from Dr. Joanne Whalen at University of Delaware that covers management and control. This is a very well done summary that addresses a lot of the issues regarding product choices, their strengths and weaknesses and other very valuable information. Dr. Whalen: With the extended drought conditions in our area, we continue to find significant populations of spider mites in both full season and double crop fields as well as in irrigated fields. In most cases infestations are field wide so edge treatments will not be effective. As we learned in past years, drought will seriously stress plant growth, favor mite development and create plant growth conditions that make it difficult to achieve effective control. Early detection, rotation among available control options and multiple applications are often needed under drought stress conditions. Under high population pressure, a single treatment is often not adequate to kill all the life stages. Mite eggs will not be affected by the initial knockdown/control of adults and nymphs and thus hatch after a few days. The only available materials for spider mite management in soybeans in Delaware are dimethoate, Lorsban (as well as generic chlorpyrifos products), bifenthrin (numerous generics available) and Hero. (Be sure to read all labels before spraying for restrictions and rates). Unfortunately, we do not have a selective miticide labeled for soybeans like we do in vegetable and fruit crops. The following is a summary of what we have seen so far this season as well as a summary of results from past seasons. Hero and bifenthrin Products  A number of products containing the active ingredient bifenthrin are available for spider mite management in soybeans . Some examples include Brigade, Bifenture, Frenzy and Sniper. In addition, Hero, a combination product including both bifenthrin and zeta-cypermethrin (two pyrethroids) is also available. In many cases, these materials have provided good initial control but a second treatment has been needed, especially if populations were exploded at the time of treatment and numerous mite eggs were present. Early detection and control is needed as with all of the materials available for mite management in soybeans. In addition, most of the labels for products containing bifenthrin state : do not make applications less than 30 days apart or do not apply more than once every 30 days. Therefore, you will need to rotate to a material with a different mode of action if a second application is needed. Dimethoate  In past years, dimethoate has not provided effective spider mite management under drought stress conditions. However, this year we have received reports of fairly good control in some situations but it should be noted that rain was received in those areas. Although dimethoate is the only systemic material available for spider mite management in soybeans it must be absorbed and translocated by the leaf tissues to provide residual action; otherwise, it undergoes rapid photodecomposition from sunlight. This leaf absorption process is greatly reduced in drought-stressed plants that have "shut-down" physiologically. Another important factor that plays a role in the performance of dimethoate is the pH of the water used as the carrier. Many pesticides, especially dimethoate, are subject to breakdown by alkaline hydrolysis. (http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/aginfo/entomology/entupdates/ICG_08/01_Intro_08.pdf) In alkaline water (high pH), there is a break in certain bonds in the dimethoate molecule, causing two or more new molecules to form. This increases the decomposition rate of the insecticide and can result in poorer than expected field performance. Dimethoate degradation is also accelerated by the mineral content of the water, especially the presence of iron. If a high pH situation exists, you can lower the alkalinity of the water in the spray tank by adding an acid-based buffer. An important consideration is to select a buffering product that lowers the pH to the acid range without causing phytotoxicity. Also, the buffer must be added to the spray tank first, before the addition of dimethoate. Note  the dimethoate label states it has a  7 day reapplication interval.  Lorsban (chlorpyrifos)- We have seen good initial control of mites with Lorsban and other generic chlorpyrifos products this season. A second application with another material has been needed especially if populations were exploded at the time of treatment and numerous mite eggs were present. Lorsban ( and other generic chlorpyrifos products) can provide good contact control of motile mites when applied in enough water to get good coverage. Since Lorsban is not a systemic product, a second spray of non-chlorpyrifos product may be needed in 5 to 7 days to kill newly hatched mites. The Lorsban label states that: (1) When large numbers of eggs are present, scout the treated area in 3-5 days and if newly hatched nymphs are present, make a follow up application with a non-chlorpyrifos product and (2) do not make a second application of Lorsban 4E or other product containing chlorpyrifos within 14 days of the first application. So before applying any material, be sure to read the label for rates as well as all restrictions including but not limited to the total number of applications allowed, rotation between materials, minimum number of days required between applications as well as the pre-harvest interval between last application and harvest. Spider mite management is never easy under drought stress conditions. Early detection and multiple applications of materials with different modes of action are often needed to reducing losses from this pest in soybeans. As a reminder, under heavy mite pressure and extended hot, dry weather, it often takes an extended period of free moisture on leaves, high humidity during the day and cool evening temperatures to get an increase in the fungal pathogens that can significantly reduce exploded mite populations.
Jul-19-2012
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Update on soybean insect pests: kudzu bug, brown marmorated stink bug, and corn earworm
We have found kudzu bugs, adults only, in three new counties, Pittsylvania and Henry Counties (in kudzu only) and Dinwiddie County (in soybean). These adults are the second generation. Adults are active and can fly long distances. The first generation developed to the south of us in either soybean or kudzu. We can expect more fields to become infested over the next several weeks and there is no way to predict for sure where these will be. I think most of our soybean acreage in Virginia could be at risk. The best way to sample for kudzu bugs is with the standard 15-inch diameter sweep net. Sweep the edges of fields first as they typically start there. Also, they seem to have a preference for beans that are flowering. If you find adults, dont panic. The thresholds developed in the southeast are based on the capture of nymphsan average of 1 nymph per sweepso 15 nymphs in our recommended 15 sweep sample. Adults invade fields, lay eggs, and the nymphs hatch to begin feeding. So by waiting to make a treatment until nymphs are present means the insecticide will have the best chance of killing all stages and lastinghopefully a single application. Spraying when adults, only, are present will most likely result in having to make a second application. Begin sweeping field edges, especially fields with flowering plantsand please report any catches to us so we can keep track of the occurrence and spread. Brown marmorated stink bugs are slow to develop this year. I think this could be related to the extreme heatthey just dont seem to like hot weather (dont quote me on that). But we are not waiting. We started our survey program this week and a scout reported finding a few on the edges of one or two fields in Orange County, one of the areas that was hit hard last summer. We are going to increase our survey effort over the next few weeks and post all findings on this advisory. Our field corn survey is not completed, but so far, most counties that have reported are indicating pretty high percentages of infested ears (50-60 percent in the southeastern counties). If conditions stay dry, we may have a pretty heavy flight into soybean fields. Adult moth trap catches are down this weekthe quiet before the storm. We had a small flight earlier which resulted in a few worms in whorl-stage sorghum and an occasional worm in cotton and soybean fields, but this next flight from corn will be the big one. Because corn fields are variable in condition and maturity, the moth flight will most likely be sporadic and localizedheavy in some areas, lighter in others. The only way to determine if fields are infested worms is to scout them, especially once pods start forming. We will post weekly updates as more information comes in.
Jul-19-2012
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Update on cotton stink bugs
Most of our cotton is about 10 days to 2 weeks in to the blooming period. This is the perfect time to begin scouting for stink bug damaged bolls. We just completed 5 cotton field scouting clinics across our cotton region and it was not hard to find stink bug damaged bolls, and a couple of fields had high levels30-40 percent internal stink bug damage. By the 3rd week of bloom, the threshold drops to 10 percent new damage and remains at 10 percent through the 5th week of bloom. These next three weeks (3rd, 4th and 5th weeks of blooming) are the most import time to scout and treat, if needed, cotton for stink bugs. Use the new cotton stink bug scouting card which provides the thresholds, scouting procedures and a template for determining the proper size of the bolls that should be used to make any treatment decision. If you dont have one, contact your local Virginia Cooperative Extension Ag Agentwe will see that you get one.
Jul-19-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap captures for week ending July 19, 2012
We had a high BMSB report from Petersburg this week, capturing nearly 20 BMSB per night in their black light trap. This trap is in a prime location for detecting brown marmorated stink bug, being within 100 feet from woods with tree of heaven at the edge, and next to an organic area with lots of weeds. Other reporting stations had zero to 2.5 BMSB per night. Please see the acknowledgments in my corn earworm moth trap report, they also apply to the BMSB reports; and please see the attached table for more trap catch details. [More]
Jul-19-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for week ending July 19, 2012
Corn earworm moth catches were generally low this week, ranging from zero to 6.5 moths per night in area black light traps. Please see the attached table for more details. Thanks to the following for their reports: Laura Maxey (King William), Helene Doughty (Virginia Beach/Hampton Roads AREC), Roy Flanagan (Virginia Beach/West Neck), Mary Beahm (Warsaw/Eastern Virginia AREC), Mark Kraemer (Petersburg), Ames Herbert and crew (Suffolk/Tidewater AREC), Chris Drake (Southampton), and Keith Balderson (Essex). [More]
Jul-12-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap captures for week ending July 12, 2012
Brown marmorated stink bug captures per night in area black light traps were as follows: Warsaw-0.4, Chesapeake-zero, Prince George (Templeton)-0.3, Prince George (Disputanta)-zero, Suffolk-zero, Sussex-zero, Petersburg-2.0, Southampton-zero, New Kent-zero. Thanks to Mary Beahm, Watson Lawrence, Scott Reiter, Ames Herbert, Kelvin Wells, Mark Kraemer, Chris Drake, and John Allison for their reports this week.
Jul-12-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap catches for week ending July 12, 2012
Corn earworm moth captures ranged from 0.1 to 23 per night in area black light traps. Most reporting locations were on the low side, however. Please see the attached file for more details. Thanks to Mary Beahm, Watson Lawrence, Scott Reiter, Ames Herbert, Kelvin Wells, Mark Kraemer, Chris Drake, and John Allison for their reports. [More]
Jul-05-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Vegetable Disease Update
It has been a busy week for vegetable diseases in the Commonwealth. Late blight was confirmed by the VT Plant Disease Clinic (Elizabeth Bush and Mary Ann Hansen) in Floyd Co., VA on both potato and tomato. This is the first report of late blight in the western part of the state. In addition, downy mildew was found on cucumber in both Accomack and Northampton Co. Reports from NC indicate strains that are starting to infect pumpkin and other cucurbits. ALL cucurbit growers should be diligent about scouting and take preventative measures. Please let me know if you have any questions regarding these developments.
Jul-05-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm (CEW) pyrethroid AVT update
We have tested another 166 moths since last weeks report and are seeing some improvement, maybe. This recent batch showed a drop to only 17.4 percent surviving the AVT challenge, making a 28.2 percent average survivorship for the seasonal 538 total testeddown a bit from the 31.2 percent survivorship reported last week. Before giving a sigh of relief, study the data from last season (see the attached line graph) and you will see an almost identical pattern with the same slight drop in early June of 2011 followed by a peak exceeding 50 percent survivorship. Stay tuned for more updates. We are also finding what appears to be a high percent of sweet corn ears infested (we pulled a bunch this week at the research center for our respective family 4th of July cookouts). We will be initiating our annual field corn survey soon which gives us the best idea of the size of the CEW population we will be dealing with. [More]
Jul-05-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm and BMSB black light trap catches for week ending July 5, 2012
The mean nightly number of corn earworm moths captured in area black light traps was low this week: King William-0.4, Warsaw-0.3, Petersburg-0.4, Prince George (Templeton)-0.4, Prince George (Disputanta)-0.3, Southampton-0.9, Suffolk-4.4. The mean nightly brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) catch was: King William-0.1, Warsaw-0.3, Petersburg-0.9, Prince George (Templeton and Disputanta)-zero, Southampton-zero, Suffolk-zero. Thanks to Laura Maxey, Mary Beahm, Mark Kraemer, Scott Reiter, Chris Drake, and Ames Herbert for their reports this week.
Jul-05-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Virginia Cotton Insect Scouting Schools2012
Virginia Cooperative Extension Agents are hosting five Cotton Insect Scouting Schools this month. Ames Herbert and Jack Bacheler from NCSU (Windsor, VA meeting, only) will be presenting cotton and soybean insect pest status updates, management recommendations, and demonstrate scouting techniques. Contact the locale Agent for details. July 1610 am, Wakefield, VA, ET Drewery Farm (contact Kelvin Wells, VCE Agent, Sussex Co.,VA kewells2@vt.edu) July 179 am, Ivor, VA, CPS Office (contact Chris Drake, VCE Agent, Southampton Co., VA chrisd17@vt.edu) July 185 pm, Windsor, VA, Dairy Queen parking lot (contact Janet Spencer, VCE Agent, Isle of Wight Co., VA jaashle2@vt.edu) July 1910 am, Dinwiddie County, Lance and Randy Everett Farm (contact Mike Parrish, VCE Agent, Dinwiddie Co., VA mparrish@vt.edu) July 196 pm, Newsoms, VA, Meherrin Office (contact Chris Drake)
Jun-29-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Vegetable Field Day at Virginia State University July 18th
Dear Friend of Virginia Agriculture: Attached is the flyer and the registration form for the 9th Annual Commercial Berry and Vegetable Field Day at Virginia State University that will take place on Wednesday, July 18, 2012 from 8:30 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. There is a no charge to attend. If you are not able to participate in this event, please share this email with other growers who may be interested in attending this field day. For registration please visit: http://tinyurl.com/vsuvegday OR mail the attached registration form to the address specified with a check or money order for the registration fee. Please email Mark Klingman at mklingman@vsu.edu if you would like more information. Thank you for helping us to promote this event. Reza Rafie Virginia State University [More]
Jun-29-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Corn earworm monitoring for sweet corn IPM
Sweet corn producers in Virginia are reaching the intensive pest management period for that crop. Corn earworm is the primary pest of sweet corn, and typically very few ears will escape infestation by this pest as the summer progresses. Monitoring the activity of moths on the farm can aid in the pest management decision making. In the Northern Neck of Virginia, Parker Farms are monitoring corn earworm pheromone traps. Nightly catch of moths at the traps indicate the flight activity of the pest, potential for egg laying on the silks, and concomitant larval infestation in the ear. The Parkers have reduced the number of insecticide sprays applied to sweet corn with this information, and have obtained damage-free sweet corn over the past two years. The exact action thresholds based on moth catch can very. University of Delaware IPM provides a good table and discussion of this. Click on the following URL. http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/thresh/sweetcornsg.html In general, catch of 10 or more moths per night is high and indicates the need for a short spray interval (every 2 or 3 days throughout silking period). Less than 10 moths per night indicates that you could increase your interval between sprays. If an average of less than 1 moth per night is caught, then spray intervals can possibly be once per week. However, corn earworm moth activity increase as we progress through the summer, and in many areas of Virginia, moth catch will exceed 10 per night though most of July and August. So far, at Parker Farms in Oak Grove in the Northern Neck of Virginia, corn earworm catch has been low in the 3 pheromone traps with the exception of one night (June 26) in one trap, when 26 moths were caught in one night. Catch dropped to 3 the following night, and has since been virtually 0. We will be reporting these trap catch data on the VA Ag Pest Advisory each week throughout the summer. We thank Raef Parker for monitoring this pest in the Northern Neck and sharing these useful sweetcorn IPM data.
Jun-29-2012
General Comments (Other)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Tech's Eastern Shore AREC Field Day set for July 18, 2012
Virginia Techs Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (ESAREC) has scheduled their 2012 Research Field Day for Wednesday, July 18, 2012. Registration is free, open to the public, and will begin at 8:00 AM at the ESAREC complex located at 33446 Research Drive, Painter, Virginia 23420. Research projects to be showcased include: herbicide resistant weeds, plant disease management, insect pest management, alternative fertilizers and fertilizer management, fumigant alternatives, and water quality best management practices. Virginia Private Pesticide Applicators and Certified Crop Advisor recertification credits will be offered. The Virginia Tech ESAREC is committed to supporting commercial vegetable and agronomic crop production throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia. Centrally located on Virginias Eastern Shore, the center conducts basic and applied research on more than 25 agricultural crops including, but not limited to, alfalfa, barley, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloupe, collards, cotton, cucumbers, dry beans, edamame, eggplant, field corn, lettuce, lima beans, peppers, potatoes, pumpkin, snap beans, soybeans, spinach, squash, sunflowers, sweet corn, switchgrass, tomatoes, watermelon, wheat, and zucchini. For more information, visit http://www.arec.vaes.vt.edu/eastern-shore/index.html. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact Lauren or Carrie at 757-414-0724* (*TDD number is (800) 828-1120) during business hours of 7:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. to discuss accommodations. [More]
Jun-29-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Nematode)
From Steven Rideout
Late blight on tomato continues to show up in Virginia
Late blight continues to be found on tomato in Virginia. New reports from the Eastern Shore of Virginia and Charles City County have been confirmed this week. The upcoming heat wave should suppress some of the damage and spread that late blight can achieve, however, growers and gardener should be diligent in scouting for the disease and take appropriate measures. [More]
Jun-28-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm and BMSB black light trap catches for week ending June 28, 2012
Reporting locations had fairly low numbers of corn earworm moths this week, although they jumped a little in Suffolk. The mean number captured per night were as follows: Chesapeake-0.6, Petersburg-0.6, Prince George (Templeton)-0.8, Prince George (Disputanta)-0.6, Suffolk-11.7, Virginia Beach-0.3, Warsaw-0.3. Average brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) nightly captures were: Chesapeake-zero, Petersburg-0.9, Prince George (both locations)-zero, Suffolk-zero, Virginia Beach-1.0, Warsaw-0.1. Thanks to Watson Lawrence, Mark Kraemer, Scott Reiter, Ames Herbert, Helene Doughty, and Mary Beahm for their numbers this week.
Jun-28-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Asiatic garden beelte in cotton and a few other comments
Nothing is really hot this week in terms of insect pests. We are seeing a few potato leafhoppers in peanuts but not heavy or widespread. We are concerned about the early results of our annual program for monitoring corn earworm pyrethroid susceptibility, but this issue is covered in detail in another of todays advisories. In soybeans, we are hearing of more than usual numbers of fields with 3-cornered alfalfa hoppers girdling seedlings. This is a tough insect to make a call on in terms of when to pull the trigger. We have documented some feeding by Asiatic garden beetle in cotton (see attached image slide collection) in one county in the northern part of our cotton area. I noticed that Dominic Reisig at NCSU commented on seeing some of the same in his state. This is a new pest of cotton and we do not know much about it. If the damage is limited to the adults feeding on leaves, we can handle it with some fairly decent guesses as to how much leaf feeding seedlings can tolerate before a treatment is needed. If you view the attached images, you will see some seedlings in the infested area were completely striped of leaves. Will this slow these plants down? Hard to say. This damage will likely not be as damaging as the feeding by thrips that concentrates on the developing bud. But we also know that Asiatic garden beetle grubs can do significant amounts of root feeding. Are they feeding on cotton roots? Would the common cotton insecticide seed treatments offer any protection? All good questions with no immediate answers. This outbreak does tell us that we should be more vigilant when it comes to scouting cotton fields during the period from post-thrips to early squaring. [More]
Jun-28-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm moths already showing high levels of pyrethroid resistance in Virginia
As of the end of this week (June 29, 2012) we have tested 372 corn earworm (CEW) moths for pyrethroid susceptibility and have a season average of 31.2% surviving the AVT (adult vial test) challenge (see the attached line graph). We had one sample with over 40% survivorship. These are high numbers for the beginning of the season and compare pretty well to what we had at this time in 2011, if not a bit higher. What does this tell us? We cannot claim pyrethroid resistance based on this kind of random survey of moths, but historically, when we see survival numbers of about 25-30% or higher, we can expect some pyrethroid control problems, especially if moth fights are heavy, and the weather turns dry. That combination would almost guarantee control problems. But, if CEW populations reach only low to moderate numbers and the season continues to get plenty of rainfall, field failures will not be nearly as common. With loss of Larvin, an effective non-pyrethroid for controlling CEW, growers will need to turn to other non-pyrethroids like Belt, Coragen (Prevathon**), Steward, or combinations that include a pyrethroid plus a non-pyrethroid either tank mixed (like a pyrethroid + Orthene) or as a product (like Besiege** which contains Karate and Coragen). (**note, the registration status of these products is not certain at this point) [More]
Jun-21-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm and BMSB black light trap catches for week ending June 21, 2012
This week's black light trap catches of corn earworm moths and brown marmorated stink bugs remain low. Average nightly corn earworm catches were: Warsaw-0.2, Petersburg-1.1, Southampton-0.4, Suffolk-1.1, Chesapeake-1.0. Nightly BMSB catches were: Warsaw-0.3, Petersburg-0.3, Southampton-zero, Suffolk-zero, Chesapeake-zero. Thanks to Mary Beahm, Mark Kraemer, Chris Drake, Ames Herbert, and Watson Lawrence for their reports this week.
Jun-21-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
New Manzate Special Local Needs Label Approved for Virginia
Attached you will find the new special local needs label for Manzate for use in Virginia potato fields. The PHI has been shortened to 3 days. Please let us know if you have any questions. Steve [More]
Jun-14-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
No big news to report on the insect pest front
We have finally passed through our roughest thrips pressure weeks, although we are still getting a few questions about Thimet burn in peanuts. Looking back, the consequences of the thrips pressure will vary a lot depending on where you are in the state. The southeastern most cotton areas typically sustained heavier pressure and had more plant damage. The pressure seemed generally less in the western areas. As mentioned earlier, pressure in cotton generally happened earlier and was much greater compared with peanut. Overall, peanuts sustained only light to moderate damage so yields may not be affected. We are turning the page to start focusing on mid-season pests with a special interest in beginning to scout for kudzu bugs in seedling soybeans. Only a few have been spotted in Virginia. More on that as we progress. We are also expecting this to be a stink bug year. Our generally warm wet spring and early summer conditions favor stink bug development. Our first indication that this may be the case is the large numbers of brown stink bugs being combined with wheat harvests. As they leave wheat fields, they will be hunting for other food sources moving through many crops including corn, soybean, cotton, tomatoes, etc., as the summer progresses. We are also gearing up for our brown marmorated stink bug soybean field survey. So far, only a few egg masses and nymphs have been reported from weed hosts. Soybeans will not be very attractive to them until plants start getting into the podding stages. More on that later.
Jun-14-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm and BMSB black light trap catches for week ending June 14, 2012
Black light trap nightly averages for corn earworm moths were as follows: Chesapeake-0.3, Petersburg-0.3, Southampton-0.1, Suffolk-0.6. For brown marmorated stink bug, nightly averages were: Chesapeake, Southampton, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach-zero, Petersburg-0.3. Thanks to Watson Lawrence, Mark Kraemer, Chris Drake, Helene Doughty, and Ames Herbert's crew for their reports this week.
Jun-07-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm and BMSB black light trap catches for week ending June 7, 2012
There were zero corn earworm and brown marmorated stink bugs captured in black light traps this week for Prince George, Petersburg, Southampton, Chesapeake, and Suffolk. Thanks to Scott Reiter, Mark Kraemer, Chris Drake, Watson Lawrence, and Ames Herbert and his crew for this week's reports. Other black light trap locations will be reporting soon, and we are trying to fix a possible electrical problem with the trap in Warsaw.
Jun-05-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late Blight found on Potato on the Eastern Shore of VA, cucurbit downy mildew widespread in NC
Find the attached document for more info about disease developments on vegetables in Virginia. Thanks Steve [More]
May-31-2012
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Peanut thrips update--still increasing
Unlike cotton where thrips pressure has peaked, numbers are still increasing in peanut. It is hard to compare the numbers we get in these two crops as we sample very different amounts of plant material. In cotton we sample whole plants, but in peanuts, only unopened terminal leaflets...where thrips concentrate their feeding. In untreated peanut plots, counts have gone from zero (May 17), to 7 (May 24), to 18 (May 30) per 10 leaflet sample. The result is not pretty with damage ratings reaching 5 to 6 on the 0-10 scale. Treatments are not keeping up, generally, and few are holding plants below a 2.0-3.0 on the scale which is where I think we need to be for plants to achieve potential yields. There are a few decent treatments and we plan to share these results in more detail at the June 5 tour, and at winter meetings.
May-31-2012
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton thrips update--still ugly
We call this Thrips Season for a good reason. Although we seem to be coming down from last weeks peak numbers of immatures (about 120-150 per 5 plant sample), we are still getting about 35-40 per 5 plants. The insecticide seed treatments, regardless of source, which were providing decent levels of control last week have broken and now have immature counts as high as or higher than untreated controls. We did not apply any additional foliar sprays to these seed treatments as we wanted to evaluate what levels of control they provide, but we recommend that growers do...and suggested that last week was the right week to pull that trigger. With this kind of heavy thrips pressure, no products are perfect and few are really good to excellent. There are a couple of pretty decent treatments but we will share more details at our tour next week (June 5, 9 am EST till noon), and more at winter meetings. We plan to take these trials to yield...data that tell you what worked and how well.
May-24-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton and peanut thrips update
The cotton in our eleven research trials is in the 1st true leaf stage. We are rating these each week for injury (visual ratings) and numbers of adult and immature thrips (soapy water samples, 5 plants per plot). Numbers of immature thrips have more than doubled since last week, from a high of 40 immatures per 5 cotton seedlings last week to a high of 148 per 5 seedlings this week. These high counts are in the untreated plots and by comparison give us a good indication of how well the many treatments we are testing are working. Breaking it down a bit, the 148 count means that each 1st true leaf seeding has about 30 immatures feeding on the small bud. They must be standing in line to feed on the leaf cells. In general, the seedlings are still growing slowly so it is difficult to do accurate visual injury ratingswith only one true leaf to rate, just not enough plant material. So this week, we think the thrips counts give a better picture of how products are working, with the idea that by next week as plants push into the 2nd and 3rd leaf stages, treatment differences in levels of plant injury will begin to express. Overall, foliar sprays alone (no seed treatment) of several products are providing some decent levels for control of immatures but not at the levels we think are needed to achieve cotton yield potential. We will provide more specific results soon, but one caution, as in the last few years, data show that we should avoid using pyrethroids. The treatments with the fewest number of immatures are the seed treatments followed by a foliar application. Several product combinations are working well. For example, in one trial the numbers of immatures in the better treatments range from 7 or less per 5 seedlings compared with 85 per 5 seedlings in the untreated control. What are the recommendations? I think, based on the high numbers of immatures we are seeing this week, we may be at or near the peak. This is the best time to make that foliar application to minimize seedling injury. The results of that application will not be visible for 4-5 days, until the next leaf emerges, which should look normal, healthy, not crinkled or worse, blackened. Peanuts are a different story. Over the last several years we have seen a trend where thrips numbers and injury to seedlings lags behind cotton by a week to 10 days. That is what we are seeing with untreated peanuts only showing the beginnings of the injury, at most a 3.5 on the 0-10 injury rating scale. This is compared to years when the injury can exceed 6 to 8 at the peak. Where cotton should be treated soon, peanut treatments could be delayed until the middle to end of next week.
May-24-2012
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Tidewater AREC June 5 Tour Reminder and Brochure
Attached is a brochure listing the speakers, topics, and other information for the "Early Summer Row Crops Tour" to be held at the Tidewater AREC Hare Road Research Farm in Suffolk, VA, on June 5, 2012. The tour will start at 9:00 am sharp. All are welcome; there is no preregistration/no fee. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 am and 4:30 pm to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event. [More]
May-24-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - May 24
Attached is this weeks version of the VPDA [More]
May-24-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Commercial Vegetable Production Guide available online
The 2012 Commercial Vegetable Production Guide is now posted online on the Virginia Cooperative Extension website: pubs.ext.vt.edu/456/456-420/456-420.html This guide provides research-based information on varieties, fertility, cultural practices, as well as weed, disease, and insect control recommendations for all vegetables from asparagus to zucchini. It is a must for commercial vegetable producers.
May-23-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Cucurbit Disease Update (Powdery and Downy Mildew)
Attached is the latest cucurbit disease update for Virginia. [More]
May-18-2012
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Thrips are no worse than usual in Virginia and so far, treatments are working
Hearing that thrips populations are larger than normal in the southeastern states has caused some concern in Virginia. For the past several years our normal in terms of thrips numbers and plant damage to cotton and peanut seedlings has been higher than most of our neighbors to the south. Worse than normal would be really challenging. This is the first week (May 14-18) that we have been able to systematically assess the thrips situation in our many cotton and peanut thrips field trials, as we finally have 1st true leaf cotton and emerged peanuts. To evaluate the thrips species and abundance, we sample 5 cotton seedlings per plot and in peanuts, 10 unopened terminal leaflets per plot. We rinse the adults and immatures from these plants/leaves and count them under a microscope. We also identify some number of the adults to species, which allows us to keep track of any species shifts that could indicate a problem. This weeks samples are showing numbers that are pretty much in line with what we would expect for this time of the year. In cotton, we are finding about 10-18 adult thrips per 5-plant sample (2-3 per plant) and about that same number of immatures. In peanuts, we are finding about that same number of adults, but fewer immatures. These numbers are typical of the first sample in May. By next week, we will see an increase in the number of immatures to levels that have historically reached as many as 130-160 per 5 cotton seedlings and as many as 60 in 10 peanut leaflets. These immatures are the stage responsible for most of the plant damage. We are just beginning to see the effects of feeding on the plants and by next week, it will be no problem sorting out which treatments are performing best. A positive observationso far we are seeing good performance with the treatments that include Admire Pro, Thimet, liquid Orthene in-furrow, CruiserMaxx Peanut, Avicta CP and Aeris/Poncho Votivo in cotton and many others. It is especially important to note that so far, we have not detected any peanut stand emergence delays with Orthene/Acephate liquid in-furrow treatment, and we have several in our field trials. We will continue to post updates as thrips season progressesand dont forget that many of these thrips trials will be featured on our annual early season field tour on Tuesday, June 5 beginning at 9 am. We will post the flier next week.
May-10-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory for May 10
Attached is this week's VPDA. [More]
May-04-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Cucurbit Downy Mildew found in NC
Please review the attachment regarding the discovery of downy mildew on cucumber in North Carolina. Thanks Steve [More]
May-04-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - Late Blight found in NC on potato
See the attachment for this week's Virginia Potato Disease Advisory. Thanks Steve [More]
May-02-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late Blight information
As a follow up to our previous email on late blight being found in our region, I wanted to share a recent VCE publication on this potentially devastating disease of potato and tomato. [More]
May-02-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late Blight found on potato in Camden, NC
Late blight was found on a commercial potato field in Camden Co., NC this week. Confirmation was made today by Dr. Pat Phipps at the TAREC based upon samples from this field. This outbreak is close enough to be considered a threat to the SE Virginia and the Eastern Shore of Virginia. We will have more information in our potato report tomorrow, but, based upon this news growers should consider treating their potato and tomato fields with a preventative fungicide such as chlorothalonil. If you have any questions feel free to contact me. Steve
May-01-2012
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC hosting row crops tour on morning of June 5, 2012
The Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center will hold an early-summer field crops tour during the morning of Tuesday, June 5, 2012. The tour will be held at the Center's Research Farm (1045 Hare Road, Suffolk, VA). Specialists (Drs. Maria Balota, Hunter Frame, Ames Herbert, David Holshouser, Pat Phipps, and Wade Thomason) will display field research in progress and will present information for the 2012 crop season. Topics will include nutrient management, pest management, and crop management for cotton, peanut, soybean, wheat, corn, and sorghum. Robert Christian will conclude the tour with a pesticide safety review. We have applied to offer Certified Crop Adviser Continuing Education Credits. Commercial Pesticide Applicator recertification credits (categories 1-A, 1-C, and 10), and Registered Technician (category 60) will be available for participants. All interested in commercial production of field crops are invited to attend. There is no preregistration and no fee for attending this tour. Arrival is at 8:30 am with the program starting promptly at 9:00 am and running through lunch (courtesy of Berry Lewis with Bayer CropScience) at 12:30 pm. More information is available through local Virginia Cooperative Extension offices or by contacting the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center main office at 757-657-6450. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 am and 4:30 pm to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event.
Apr-26-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - April 26
Please find attached this week's VPDA [More]
Apr-19-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - April 19
Attached is the first VA Potato Disease Advisory for 2012. [More]
Apr-18-2012
General Comments (Other)
From Steven Rideout
Date/Time for Virginia Tech's Eastern Shore AREC Summer Field Day Set
The annual summer Eastern Shore AREC will be held on July 18th, 2012 at the research station in Painter, VA. Registration will begin at 8:00AM with plot/research tours beginning at 9:00AM. Lunch will follow the tour. We hope to see you there! A more detailed program will be developed at a later date.
Apr-12-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Controlling brown marmorated stink bugs in sweet corn
I was contacted recently by a VCE Agent in Frederick Co. Mark Sutphin about my recommendations for stink bug bug control in sweet corn. Frederick Co., VA is one of the counties that has very high densities of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug. After sending him my reply, I thought that others in Virginia may also benefit from this information. So here it is below: Fortunately for sweet corn producers, unlike tree fruit growers, BMSB should not cause any drastic changes in chemical control strategies unless the grower is relying primarily on transgenic Bt sweet corn for worm control. Bt will not control stink bugs. Most of the insecticides that growers are already spraying on sweet corn should control BMSB. These include the following below: beta-cyfluthrin  1.6-2.8 fl oz/A Baythroid XL bifenthrin  2.1-6.4 fl oz/A Bifenture (or Brigade, Sniper, or OLF) Not labeled in coastal counties chlorpyrifos 1-2 pts/A Lorsban 4E (or OLF) chlorpyrifos + gamma-cyhalothrin  13-26 fl oz/A Cobalt cyfluthrin  1.6-2.8 fl oz/A Tombstone (or OLF) gammacyhalothrin  2.56-3.84 fl oz/A Proaxis lambda-cyhalothrin  1.28-1.92 fl oz/A Warrior II or 2.56-3.84 fl oz/A Lambda-Cy (LambdaT, Silencer, or OLF) lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole  6-9 fl oz/A Voliam xpress methomyl  0.75-1.5 pts Lannate LV permethrin  4-8 fl oz/A Permethrin 3.2EC (Perm-UP, Pounce 3.2EC or OLF) zeta-cypermethrin  2.24-4 fl oz/A Mustang MAX (or OLF) zeta-cypermethrin + bifenthrin-Not labeled in coastal counties 4.5-11.2 fl oz/A Hero EW Click More News to download a copy of the insecticide performance report based on our research on vegetable crops in Virginia in 2011. In the western portions of Virginia, probably applications twice per week during silking and until harvest should control them even under heavy pest pressure. In eastern counties, insecticide applications at least 3 times per week are probably needed to control both corn earworm and the BMSB. Best regards, Tom [More]
Apr-02-2012
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel was just granted approval for a 24c label
Greetings, I just got off the phone with Micah Raub (VDACS), and he told me that the 24c for use of Avipel in VA has been approved.
Mar-30-2012
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel 2012 re-certification denied, but a 24c is on the way
Avipel re-certification was declined by EPA for lack of data; however, Micah Raub has been working with Ken Ballinger on a 24c, and it looks like VDACS is going to submit the paperwork this Friday. Shipping of product may occur by early next week. This latest information from Mr. Ken Ballinger.
Mar-22-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Luna Tranquility now Labeled for use in Virginia on Potato
Luna Tranquility is a new fungicide from Bayer CropScience and has just received approval for use in Virginia. On the vegetable front, Luna Experience is only labeled on potato currently for control of early blight primarily. Luna Tranquility is also labeled for use on apples. Please let us know if you have any specific questions. The label can be found at the attached link. [More]
Mar-22-2012
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel 2012 re-certification: Not yet, but read text
I just visited with Ken Ballinger, my contact with the company Airepel, and he's confident Avipel will be registered within the next couple of days. So to save a day, he urges corn growers to go ahead and place their orders for Avipel with their supplier.
Mar-22-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Luna Experience labeled for use on Watermelon in Virginia
Luna Experience is a new fungicide from Bayer CropScience and has just received approval for use in Virginia. On the vegetable front, Luna Experience is only labeled on watermelon currently for control of gummy stem blight, powdery mildew and others. Luna Experience is also labeled for use on grapes and select tree nut crops. Please let us know if you have any specific questions. The label can be found at the attached link. [More]
Mar-21-2012
Forages (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Weather ideal for aphids and slugs
Scott Baker, Bedford Co. extension agent, reported aphids in an alfalfa field. I recommended an application of a pyrethroid labled for use against aphids in alfalfa.
Mar-21-2012
General Comments (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Plant Pathology/Disease Facebook Page
Once again I would like bring our research program's Facebook page to everyone's attention. We will be providing research updates, disease advisory alerts, and general tips and pictures of diseases throughout 2012. You can find the page at www.facebook.com/vtesarecpp
Mar-21-2012
General Comments (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Fontelis Fungicide now Labeled for Use in Virginia
Fontelis, a new fungicide from DuPont, is now received state registration and will be available for use on a number of vegetable and field crops in 2012. The label is attached and should you have any specific questions please let us know as we have had tested this material for several years. Thanks, Steve (srideout@vt.edu). [More]
Mar-20-2012
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel 2012 re-certification: In EPA's hands now
VDACS just sent me a copy of a letter sent to EPA positively arguing their/our case for Avipel use in VA.
Mar-13-2012
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel 2012 re-certification: there's another way to skin a cat
Greetings, I sincerely apologize for the runaround. That said, I came up with a simpler solution. Just email me (youngman@vt.edu) with the answer to the following question: "How has the loss of Lindane impacted your yields in relationship to bird depredation?" Many thanks, Rod
Mar-13-2012
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel 2012 re-certification: Try the attachment again
Greetings, I'll try my attachment again. [More]
Mar-13-2012
Field Corn (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel 2012 re-certification: Try the attachment again
Try the attachment again [More]
Mar-12-2012
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel 2012 re-certification: Eleventh hour
Greetings, planting season is around the corner. If you answer the question in the lower lefthand corner of the attached that would be enough I'm told. Thank you for your time and energy in this matter. [More]
Mar-01-2012
Field Corn (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel 2012 re-certification in jeopardy
Greetings, I have received 5 surveys to date. [More]
Feb-09-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Helene Doughty
2011 Vegetable arthropod Pest Management Research Summary
The 2011 Vegetable Entomology Research Summary is available online at the following link: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/ENTO/ENTO-1/ENTO-1.html. Highlighted are Dr. Tom Kuhars research trials conducted in 2011 on key vegetable crops and insect pests, including a number of field experiments and laboratory assays on the brown marmorated stink bug.
Feb-08-2012
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Vegetables added to the Belt insecticide label
Bayer CropScience recently announced that vegetables have been added to the Belt insecticide label. The insecticide product Synapse, which also contains the potent-lepidopteran active ingredient flubendiamide, will be phased out. Belt will be the product for both cropping systems. Existing supplies of Synapse should be sold, and growers can continue to use that product. Bayer Cropscience is also offering price reductions for the product. Click more to download the new Belt label. [More]
Feb-03-2012
Field Corn (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel re-certification: slightly modified survey
Mr. Brown (EPA) informed Mr. Raub (VDACS) recently about the need for more data. Specifically, your answer to this question: How has the loss of lindane impacted your yields in relationship to bird depredation? I have added this question to the lower left side of attached survey. [More]
Feb-02-2012
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Ames Herbert's 2011 research summary book now available online
Ames Herbert's 2011 "Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean" is now available online at: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/AREC/AREC-7/AREC-7.html This document summarizes thrips, corn earworm, stink bug, southern corn rootworm, and other insect pest trials in the above crops. It also includes the results of the 2011 field corn survey, soybean insecticide use survey, and black light trap captures.
Jan-31-2012
Field Corn (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel Section 18 for VA: re-certification with data
I have re-sent the survey instrument as a PDF document. My apologies for any inconvenience this may have caused you. [More]
Jan-31-2012
Field Corn (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel Section 18 for VA: re-certification with data
Micah Raub (VDACS) received an email recently from Mr. Howard (EPA). Mr. Howard said,..."the Avipel Section 18 is eligible for re-certification with data." 2010 data from grower testimonials on bird injury to their corn seed and seedlings, carried the day for approval of our 2011 Section 18 for Avipel use in Virginia. This is where you come in. Attached is the same survey instrument about bird injury used on 2010 acres, with 1 difference. Its requesting data for your 2011 corn fields that suffered from bird injury. Hopefully, we will receive re-certification of our Section 18 in time for you to use it on more than 12,600 acres in Virginia. [More]
Jan-04-2012
General Comments (Other)
From Steven Rideout
2012 Eastern Shore Ag Conference and Trade Show - Jan. 10&11, 2012
Attached is the latest tentative schedule for the 2012 Eastern Shore Ag Conf. and Trade Show to be held Jan. 10 - 11, 2012 in Belle Haven, VA. [More]
Oct-03-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Supplemental label for Zeal miticide on cukes and fruiting veggies
Control of two-spotted spider mite can be very difficult once mite outbreaks are flared. Portal, Oberon, Acramite, and Agrimek are all efficacious materials to control mite outbreaks on vegetables. Zeal is also effective, and has just recently gotten a Supplemental Label for additional crops including: cucumbers, fruiting vegetables such as tomatoes and peppers, and other small fruit crops. Rotation of miticides is important for resistance management. Zeal is another effective miticide with a novel mode of action to include in this rotation. Click more for the Supplemental Label. [More]
Sep-29-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Final black light trap report for brown marmorated stink bug, 2011 season
Petersburg was the only station that reported captures of BMSB this week, with a total of 6 captured for the week of Sep. 23-29. Please see the attached table for the season summary. Please note that we will continue to inform our clientele of the status of BMSB in Virginia soybean; our scout is continuing his efforts a couple more weeks. [More]
Sep-29-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Final corn earworm moth black light trap report and table for 2011
Very low numbers of corn earworm moths reported this week; please see the final table for details. [More]
Sep-29-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Bayer is discontinuing Larvin
Accoreind to a recent email from Malone Rosemond with Bayer CropScience, "Bayer will discontinue supplying Larvin as of December 2011. The channel can still sell and growers can still use Larvin until supplies are exhausted. This decision will not impact Aeris, as thiodicarb will still be produced for this product".
Sep-22-2011
Field Corn (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth trap captures for the week ending Sep. 22, 2011
Average nightly black light trap captures of corn earworm moths were as follows: Warsaw (18.7), Petersburg (6.6), Prince George (2.9), Suffolk (7.4). Pheromone traps in Virginia Beach captured a weekly total of 19 corn earworm moths at the Baker farm and 4 at the Henley farm. [More]
Sep-22-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug update: black light trap captures and location in Virginia soybean
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) black light trap catches for this week totaled 1 in Virginia Beach and zero in Warsaw, Petersburg, and Suffolk. If you click "More" you can see the results (to date) of Dr. Herbert's survey of BMSB in soybean. [More]
Sep-15-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth trap captures for the week ending September 15, 2011
Nightly averages for corn earworm moths in our black light traps were as follows: Warsaw (33), Petersburg (18), Prince George (12), Suffolk (15). [More]
Sep-15-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap catches for the week ending September 15, 2011
The Petersburg black light trap had a total of 17 BMSB captured this week, followed by Virginia Beach with 2. Prince George, Suffolk, and Warsaw traps did not catch any BMSB this week. [More]
Sep-08-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug survey--Sep. 8, 2011 update
For the past two months, Ed Seymore and Laura Maxey have been surveying Virginia soybean fields for brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and soybean aphid. Please click "More" to view the map showing the BMSB results to date. A field in Gloucester had low numbers of soybean aphids, but they have not been found in our other survey locations. [More]
Sep-08-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth trap captures for the week ending Sep. 8, 2011
Black light trap captures of corn earworm moths were higher this week at our reporting stations. Please click "More" to view the results. [More]
Sep-08-2011
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Late season onslaught of corn earworm
It may be happening for the first time that I can recalla late season infestation of corn earworms in soybeans. The last couple of nights we have trapped more corn earworm moths (about 1800 and 1500, respectively) in our pheromone traps than we have ever captured. These are alarmingly high numbers and I am getting reports that folks are seeing a lot of moth activity in and around fields of cotton, soybean and peanut. I got the first report today that some growers in southern Southampton County are having to retreat some soybean fields. I have been telling folks that as best I can remember, I have never seen a new infestation of earworms develop in September. Well, as one of my earlier mentors said to me one day. Dont make predictions about insects. Theyll make a liar out of you every time. Seems he was right. So, what crops are at risk? The cotton and peanut crops are safe as we are close to defoliation time with cotton and digging time with peanuts. Only late planted soybean fields that still have susceptible pods (earlier than R7 growth stage) are at risk. The good news is that our corn earworm pyrethroid vial test results have been showing a gradual decrease in the percent of moths surviving (see the attached graph) to levels below 10%, which means that pyrethroid insecticides should provide good control, relatively inexpensively. If I was someones mentor, I would want to go down in history as saying, Never let your guard down. Never stop checking fields for insect pests until the crop is mature. [More]
Sep-08-2011
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Brown marmorated stink bug in soybean, summary to date
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) which was first identified in 2001 in Allentown, PA, is now infesting soybean fields in parts of Virginia. This stink bug, although similar in appearance to our native brown-colored species, can be easily distinguished by the white bands on their antennae, and the white bands on the legs of nymphs. BMSB is a known pest of many crops, wreaking havoc on fruit crops, wine grapes and many vegetable crops, especially sweet corn. Although the epicenter for this pest is still the mid-Atlantic region (PA, DE, MD, VA and WV), a few have been found in states as distant as California. BMSB, like our native stink bug species, feeds directly on developing soybean pods and seed. If the damage occurs very early in seed development, pods will be flat and brown, but still be attached to the plant and easy to see. If damage occurs later in seed development, pods will appear yellow and speckled, and opening the pod will reveal damaged, crinkled, stained seed. Last summer (2010) we began a monitoring program for BMSB in soybean and found them in soybean fields in 15 Virginia counties, but always in low numbers. In Maryland where they had seen these same kinds of low numbers the previous year (2009), last summer (2010) they found large infestations on field edges. The same pattern has occurred for us. This summer (2011) we have found several fields with very high numbers. So far, the heavily infested fields are confined to one geographical areathe north-central piedmont counties of Orange, Culpeper, Madison, Fauquier and Clarke. Very low numbers have been reported in other counties. A pattern seems to be emerging that is playing well for us in terms of managing BMSB in soybean. To date, yield threatening infestations seem to be confined to field edges, not going beyond 30 to 50 feet into the field. Heavy infestations also seem to be associated with fields with wooded borders, especially if there are concentrations of the invasive weed, Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Both BMSB and Tree-of Heaven are native to China and other parts of Asia. BMSB seems to be strongly attracted to that host, especially when the trees are putting out their seed clusters. Not coincidently, the north-central piedmont area where we are finding the highest densities of BMSB in soybean is the area with the highest concentration of Tree-of-Heaven. I encourage you to Google Tree-of-Heaven and become familiar with what it looks like. This strong field edge effect has made it possible for our local soybean growers to make edge treatments applying insecticides in one spray-boom width around a field, without having to treat the entire field. We are revisiting as many of these edge treated fields as often as we can, and so far, the edge treatments are holding. Another bit of good news is that many of the insecticides commonly used in soybean are effective against BMSB. This summer, we were able to put out three insecticide trials in growers fields in Orange County and most of the products we applied worked very well (including Baythroid XL, Belay, Brigade, Cobalt Advanced, Endigo ZC, Lannate LV, Orthene 97, and Vydate L). The problem for fruit growers is not that they cannot kill these critters, it is that they continue to reinvade their orchard which necessitates repeated sprays. Will this also occur in soybean fields? We are not certain. How should growers react to this new pest? We are recommending that growers stay vigilant until the latest planted fields reach the R7 growth stage when beans would no longer be susceptible to stink bug feeding. Scout field edges, especially fields with wooded edges with clusters of Tree-of-Heaven. Use a sweep net to sample the plants by making successive 15-sweep samples. We have no exact threshold, but suggest that greater than an average of 4 adults or nymphs per 15-sweeps would constitute a risk to the pods and seed. We have encountered fields with 8 to 10 per 15 sweeps, and in some extreme cases, more than 20 to 30 per 15 sweeps. So, the bad news is we have another established insect pest of soybean in Virginia. The good news is we have already made some progress in terms of how best to manage it. As a final note, we are also in the process of doing field cage studies to determine 1) how damage by BMSB may differ from damage by our native stink bug species, and 2) what a damage threshold might bemore on this later.
Sep-01-2011
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Update on brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) in soybean
The BMSB situation has not changed a lot since last week, except that we have found them in a couple of new counties. Our epicenter for high populations is still in the north/central part of the state (see the attached distribution map). Several growers in that area have applied field edge treatments and we are in the process of doing as many follow-up visits as possible to determine if/when the bugs may move back in. So far, edge treatments seem to be holding and we ARE NOT recommending treating whole fields. These BMSB infestations have been very consistently on field edges so spraying entire large fields appears to be a waste of time and money. What can we expect in the next few weeks? Will BMSBs move into late planted fields, a pattern that we often see with our native stink bug species? Or, will BMSBs begin to leave fields for their overwintering sites in buildings and structures? We are not certain. Our plan is to keep monitoring as many fields as possible through the end of September when most fields would be developed to a stage that is safe from stink bug damage. We also expect to see fields, especially in the north/central part of the state, with stay-green syndrome on the edgesa response soybean plants have to stink bug damage that occurred earlier in the season. Finally, we are still monitoring our field insecticide trials and although these are not finished, we are seeing good results with most of the products we applied. We are seeing good control with several products including Vydate, Lannate, Belay, Baythroid XL, Endigo ZC, Cobalt Advanced, and Brigade. More details will be provided once these tests are completed. [More]
Sep-01-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth trap captures for the week ending September 1, 2011
Many black light trap operators turned off their traps because of Irene, so most catch averages are based on less than 7 days. Catches ranged from 2 to 15 corn earworm moths per night. [More]
Sep-01-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap catches for the week ending September 1, 2011
Only one station reported captures of brown marmorated stink bugs in the black light trap this week (Petersburg-2); all other reporting locations had zero. [More]
Aug-25-2011
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) update in soybean
I have attached a new map of Virginia showing the counties where we have encountered BMSBs in soybean fields. A difference from last year--many of these fields have heavy infestations on the edges. At this point, some of the growers have made edge treatments, one spray boom width, to see if this will stop the infestation. Our challenge now is to try to begin revisiting at least some of those fields to determine if this strategy has worked, and if or when infestations may recur. We now have some post treatment ratings on several insecticides and most are providing good knockdown. We were able to evaluate only a few of the products available, but may have more opportunities later in the season. To date, we are getting good control with Lannate, Vydate, Cobalt Advanced, Belay, Orthene 97, Endigo ZC, Baythroid XL, and Brigade. We will provide more details as we have time. [More]
Aug-25-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth trap captures for the week ending August 25, 2011
Nightly averages ranged from 4 to 15 corn earworm moths in most reporting locations, except for Warsaw which had an average of 51 moths per night. Please click More for the data table. [More]
Aug-25-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap catches for the week ending August 25, 2011
A range of zero to three brown marmorated stink bugs were reported for the week by our monitoring stations; please click More for the data table. [More]
Aug-17-2011
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Brown marmorated stink bugs found in high numbers in soybean fields
Thanks to the conscientious effort of our field scout, Ed Seymore, we have located several soybean fields in Orange County, Virginia (about 20 miles NE of Charlottesville) with large numbers of brown marmorated stink bugs. These high density areas are very much restricted to field edges next to woods, especially where there are groups of tree or heaven. On these field edges we could easily capture 10 to 20 adults and nymphs, or more, in a 15-sweep sample. The ratio of adults to nymphs was heavy on the nymph side, with evidence of old egg masses on the leaves. As best we could determine these infestations went only about 30 feet into the fields, then numbers dropped to 1 to 2, or less per 15 sweeps. There was evidence of feeding with flattened pods and discolored pods with damaged seed. There is no question that these infested areas will suffer from stay green syndrome at the end of the season. We are not sure how widespread this problem is, but are doing what we can to locate other problem areas/fields. So far, we have no other reports. In one field, we were able to put in a couple of fairly primitive insecticide efficacy trials. I use the word primitive because we had to fit plot plans into these narrow field edges with their curves and ups-and-downs (not much flat ground in that part of the state). We hope to take post treatment ratings soon and will post results, if we are successful.
Aug-16-2011
General Comments (Other)
From Steven Rideout
Eastern Shore AREC Fall Field Day Set For Sept. 21, 2011
September 21, 2011: Fall Field Day Plot research demonstrating methyl bromide alternatives for vegetable production along with nutrient, weed, disease, insect and general production techniques for polyethylene mulch systems, tomatoes, potatoes, corn, cotton, soybeans and more. Registration will begin at 2:00 PM with field tours beginning at 3:00 PM. A complimentary dinner will begin at 5:30 PM. If you have any questions or plan on attending, please contact Lauren Seltzer (mlpeyton@vt.edu).
Aug-11-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for the week ending August 11, 2011
Black light trap captures of corn earworm moths were generally lower than last week, with notable exceptions in Petersburg, Middlesex, and Richmond County/Warsaw. Please click "More" to see the current black light data table. Thanks to the following for their reports this week: Keith Balderson, Mary Beahm, Chris Drake, Jim Jenrette, Mark Kraemer, Watson Lawrence, David Moore, Mike Parrish, Kelvin Wells, Scott Reiter, and the Tidewater AREC entomology crew. [More]
Aug-11-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap catches for the week ending August 11, 2011
BMSB black light trap catches for this week totaled 38 in Petersburg and 3 in Richmond County/Warsaw. No BMSB were caught in Essex, Chesapeake, Prince George, Southampton, or Suffolk black light traps. Please click "More" for the data table. [More]
Aug-11-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth adult vial test results for the week ending August 11, 2011
Out of 375 corn earworm moths evaluated this week in our pyrethroid vial tests, the mean survival rate was 31%. This is down slightly from last week's 36%. Please click "More" to view the season summary graphs (2010 and 2011 seasons). [More]
Aug-11-2011
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm infestations are scattered but more common
There are more reports this week of soybean fields nearing or reaching thresholds for corn earworm, but the situation is sill spotty. We have checked a lot of fields and are finding essentially none. Other areas seem be trending towards just below, at, or just above thresholds. And there seem to be a few fields with well above threshold numbers. This fits the pattern for a year that I would describe asnormal or average. Moth catches are fairly low in number, steady, or even dropping in some locations. Many are reporting that they are finding higher populations of worms in flowering fields, which would be the double crop, later planted fields. The full season fields or those planted to Group 4 varieties are having less pressure, as those fields are more mature and less attractive to the invading moths. I still maintain that control should be good with high pyrethroid rates, even given the vial test tolerance results. But those fields with high numbers should be treated with non-pyrethroids. Stink bugs are certainly out there, but no major problems have been reported.
Aug-11-2011
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Worms and mites revisited...Ames Herbert and Rick Brandenburg
The next two weeks should be key weeks if indeed we are going to see caterpillars in the peanut crop; so keep your eyes open. The last week or so has been good to many of you with some much needed rains. This really helps with the spider mites. In fact, when we get two consecutive days of cloudy weather and temperatures below 90 F, that really helps a fungus that attacks mites and knocks populations back. However, mites still need to be watched carefully given the hot summer and the forecast for the next week. As we move further along into August you can feel more confident applying a compound like Brigade or Danitol for mites and caterpillars with less concern about a rebound of the mite population. Comite is an effective mite product but can be hard to find in certain areas. The later we get in the season, the more practical it is to spray once for mites and then take a wait and see approach and hope you get favorable weather. Caterpillar sprays should be considered only if thresholds are met. In fields with normal or better leaf canopies, treat if caterpillar populations reach 4 per row foot; and this increases to 6 per row foot towards the end of August. Many peanut fields are treated when populations are well below threshold, a practice that does not reap any benefit, and could increase the risk of other problems. If plants have poor canopy growth, you may be justified in using a lower threshold, but again, it is important to at least try to determine the number per row foot and abide by the thresholds. Another consideration is what species of caterpillars are present. They all count equally in the threshold, but if fall armyworms are in the mix, a non-pyrethroid may be needed to achieve good control.
Aug-09-2011
General Comments (Other)
From Mark Reiter
Mid-Atlantic Precision Agriculture Equipment Field Day
The Mid-Atlantic Precision Ag Field Day will be held at the Caroline County 4-H Park 8230 Detour Road, Denton, MD 21629 and is a cosponsored event by VA, MD, WV, PA, and DE Extension. . We will be offering Certified Crop Advisor Continuing Education Credits. This is a great opportunity to learn from some of the foremost precision ag experts. A flyer is attached. Registration is free, but we are asking that attendees preregister. The website with more information for the event and registration information can be found at: http://www.enst.umd.edu/extension/Events.cfm Thank you, Mark VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT VT Mark S. Reiter, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Soils and Nutrient Management Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 33446 Research Drive Painter, VA 23420 757-414-0724 ext. 16 (Office Phone) 757-693-2556 (Mobile Phone) 757-414-0730 (Fax) [More]
Aug-05-2011
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Update on corn earworm and brown marmorated stink bug in the Virginia soybean crop
The corn earworm pyrethroid vial test data (see attach graph) are showing some decline in the percent surviving...which is good. But levels are still high enough to indicate possible control problems. As I said in last weeks advisory, I think high rates of pyrethroids will work well enough in soybean fields with threshold or just above numbers of worms. If we get into a situation like last year with high numbers (e.g., 15, 20, 30 or more per 15 sweeps) then misses are much more likely and non-pyrethroids would be needed to achieve good control. In general, the non-pyrethroids will not do a good job of controlling stink bugs so if they are also present, pyrethroids, which do a good job on stink bugs, would need to be tank-mixed. The CEW moth flight from corn seems to be a little slow in developing. Our traps are catching an average of about 60-70 per night, but elsewhere in the state counts are still pretty low. As far as we can determine, no worms have been found yet in any soybean fields in Virginia. We expect to find some in the southeastern part of the state by next week. It is a bit too early to speculate, but we may have a much easier year this year with fewer infested fields compared with previous years. Our survey for brown marmorated stink bugs started this week and we found them in several soybean fields (Orange and Fauquier Cos.). But they were very scattered in fields and in low numbers (well below 1 per 15 sweeps). We found both adults and nymphs and in one field, egg masses. Delaware reports seeing low numbers in most soybean fields, and I suspect, as we progress with our survey, we will find the same thing. So far, these very low numbers do not represent any threat to the crop. How will this evolve? My best guess is that as populations increase and begin to move from other plant hosts, we may see larger numbers build up toward the end of the season, especially in our double-crop fields. [More]
Aug-04-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth trap captures for the week ending August 4, 2011
Black light trap captures of corn earworm moths continue to increase, with a range of 1 (Essex) to 137 (Warsaw) captured per night. Please click "More" to see the current black light data table. Thanks to the following for their reports this week: Keith Balderson, Mary Beahm, Neil Clark and Chris Drake, Mark Kraemer, Watson Lawrence, Laura Maxey, Janet Spencer, David Moore and Micah Owens, Kelvin Wells, Scott Reiter, and the Tidewater AREC entomology crew. [More]
Aug-04-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap catches for the week ending August 4, 2011
Ed Seymore is scouting Virginia soybean fields again this year for brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and soybean aphid. Ed found BMSB this week in low numbers in soybean fields in Orange and Fauquier Counties. Dr. Mark Kraemer (Virginia State University) caught a total of 93 BMSB this week in the Petersburg black light trap, and reported that BMSB has been found on flowering vegetable-type soybean and a few on Mung beans. The extent of damage is not yet known. Other BMSB black light trap catches for this week totaled 45 in Studley/Mechanicsville, 3 in Essex, and 6 in Warsaw. No BMSB were caught in Chesapeake, Southampton, Isle of Wight, Prince George, or Suffolk black light traps. Please click "More" for the data table. [More]
Aug-02-2011
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Caterpiller and spider mite control decisions in peanut, Ames Herbert and Rick Brandenburg
Early August is the time of year we commonly see populations of corn earworms and other caterpillars in peanuts in Virginia and North Carolina. Recent light trap catches would indicate we should see some worms in peanut over the next couple of weeks. Two very appropriate questions have been asked in recent weeks and a quick review of possible answers to these questions is in order. The first question focuses on the issue of insecticide resistance in corn earworm populations in peanuts. There is some indication that pyrethroid resistance among corn earworms, including the ones we find in peanut fields, is a real concern. However, the pyrethroids cost less than other options and for many growers are the preferred means of control. In addition, pyrethroids are not the best choice for controlling tobacco budworms or fall armyworms in peanuts and control is often less than satisfactory against these pests. The second question focuses on which product to select if the field is also infested with spider mites. In our opinion, 100% control should not be an overriding goal when treating for caterpillars in peanuts. Good control of corn earworm can still be obtained in most situations with the high rate of pyrethroids. Guidelines for helping determine which type of product to select in peanuts this year might include the following: 1.Very high populations of worms. If populations exceed 8-10 worms per row foot, then the use of a non-pyrethroid insecticide might be a better choice. 2.If populations of tobacco budworm or fall armyworm make up more than 25% of the population, then the use of a non-pyrethroid insecticide might be a better choice. 3.If you understand that you do not need to obtain 100% control of caterpillars to preserve yield, then the use of a non-pyrethroid insecticide might be a better choice. 4.If spider mites are present, then Danitol or Brigade should be used for caterpillar control. Guidelines are subject to specific local conditions, but in general we believe that pyrethroids still hold value for caterpillar control in peanuts this year. The recent rains certainly helped with the spider mite situation, but temperatures this week will drive populations back up. If caterpillar and/or spider mite populations increase in the coming weeks, we will update you on any changes in our recommendations.
Jul-28-2011
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton insect pest update
The corn earworm (bollworm) flight out of corn started over the past weekend. A few cotton fields have reached what we use as the egg threshold in conventional varieties (10 eggs in 100 terminals). Our long-standing recommendation is to treat BGll and Widestrike varieties with a single application of the pyrethroid of choice at the highest labeled rate, 5 to 7 days after the egg threshold. In most areas, that should happen next week. Even with the potential for corn earworm/bollworm pyrethroid resistance/tolerance (see the other July 28 advisory), I think a high rate of pyrethroid is still a good choice for cotton, as it has performed very well in past years. The difference compared with soybean (where we do recommend non-pyrethroids) is that in cotton, we only have to control the few worms that have escaped the Bollgard/Widestrike insect toxins. Are these escapes easier to control because they have been exposed to the Bt toxins? There are also some stink bug hangers-on in some fields, and we are seeing a shift from predominantly brown stink bugs to predominately green stink bugs, which are easily controlled with normal pyrethroids. So, for the money, consider a single high rate treatment of your pyrethroid of choice. There is a lot of confusion about some of the pyrethroid products, especially those combining bifenthrin and zeta-cypermethrin (e.g., Steed, Hero). We have attached a table that provides the amounts of active ingredient of each insecticide, for the recommended lowest and highest labeled rates for cotton bollworm/stink bug contorl. In general, you can get more active ingredient per acre if you fall back to the single-insecticide products (e.g., Brigade, Mustang). [More]
Jul-28-2011
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Soybean insect pest update: corn earworm and stink bugs
Corn earworm moths are beginning to migrate from corn fields and levels of pyrethroid survivorship are extremely high (see other advisory posted on July 28). Corn earworm populations are always worse in dry years. But we have had some recent rains over much of Virginia so we may see some benefit from those. Corn earworm moths are already laying eggs in cotton, so likely they are also laying eggs in soybean fields. They would be attracted to flowering fields and those with younger pods. A lot of our crop is in these growth stages. I would recommend beginning to scout soybean fields by next week in the southern counties, and by the middle of the following week in middle and northern counties. How will this problem develop over the next few weeks, only time will tell? Although stink bugs are present in some soybean fields, the numbers are still low. We are seeing a shift from primarily brown stink bugs to primarily green stink bugs, which is the norm for this time of year in Virginia. Fortunately, green stink bugs are easy to control with pyrethroids, and when browns comprise 30% or less of the total (which is the norm), we also see good control. Although brown marmorated stink bugs are being reported in some locations in Virginia, so far, none have invaded soybeans, and this is also true for Maryland. We will begin a large scale soybean monitoring effort next week (Aug 1). What are our current recommendations for controlling soybean insects? Because of the potential for corn earworm pyrethroid resistance/tolerance, consider a non-pyrethroid insecticide option, especially if worm counts are high (more than 3 times the threshold). If stink bugs are also present in economic levels, a pyrethroid or neonicotinoid insecticide would need to be added as most of the non-pyrethroid worm control options do not provide stink bug control. Another option that has a good track record both here and in the Delta states is a tank mix of one-half pound of Orthene (Acephate) plus a high rate of pyrethroid. For reasons we dont fully understand, this tank mix is doing a very good job in controlling corn earworms, tobacco budworms, and stink bugs.
Jul-28-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap catches for the week ending July 28, 2011
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) black light trap catches for this week totaled 50 in Studley/Mechanicsville, 151 in Petersburg, 12 in Warsaw, 63 in Virginia Beach, and 3 in each of the two traps in Prince George. No BMSB were caught in Chesapeake, Painter, Southampton, Prince George, Isle of Wight, or Suffolk black light traps. Please click "More" for the data table. [More]
Jul-28-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth trap captures for the week ending July 28, 2011
The flight of corn earworm moths out of corn has begun and black light trap catches are on the rise. Please click "More" to see the current black light data table. Pheromone traps in Virginia Beach captured a weekly total of 4 corn earworm moths at the Baker farm, 24 at the Henley farm, and 31 at the Hampton Roads AREC. Six were caught in the Eastern Shore AREC pheromone trap. Thanks to the following for their reports this week: Mary Beahm, Neil Clark, Mark Kraemer, Scott Reiter, Kelvin Wells, Watson Lawrence, Helene Doughty, Laura Maxey, Janet Spencer, David Moore, and the Tidewater AREC entomology crew. [More]
Jul-28-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm pyrethroid vials tests show very high levels of survivorship
Corn earworm moth counts in local black light traps have increased from a few per night to 40-50 per night. These are not large numbers, but do indicate that moths are beginning to emerge from corn fields. Moths from corn are the second generation that migrates into soybean, cotton and peanut fields. We have run two batches of these second generation moths in our pyrethroid vial testing program with alarming results....55% (330 tested) and 59% (131 tested) survivorship for the July 26th and 27th samples (see the attached line graph). These are unprecedented levels for Virginia where in recent years, 40% survivorship was considered high. In a conversation with Dr. Rogers Leonard, a field crops entomologist at LSU, he confirmed that they are seeing even higher levels of survivorship in the Delta states and are dealing with extremely large corn earworm/tobacco budworm infestations in soybean. See more comments relating to soybean and cotton in the other July 28 advisories. [More]
Jul-28-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Corn earworm pheromone trap catch for the Northern Neck of Virginia - Last week of July
Raef Parker reports lower trap catches of corn earworm this week compared with the previous week. Traps are averaging about 2-10 moths per night.
Jul-27-2011
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
VT Tidewater AREC Pre-Harvest Field Tour--September 15, 2011
The Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) will hold its pre-harvest field crops tour the morning of Thursday, September 15th. The tour will be held at the Center's research farm at 1045 Hare Road in Suffolk. Specialists will display field research in progress and present valuable information for the 2011 harvest season and 2012 planting season. Important topics addressed will include cotton defoliation strategies; peanut variety and maturity assessment; cover crop establishment; variety evaluation in cotton, corn and grain sorghum; and disease and insect management in cotton, peanut, and soybean, including adaptation to the pending loss of Aldicarb (Temik®) nematicide-insecticide. Virginia private pesticide applicator certification credits will be available for participants. Lunch will be served after the tour and updates presented from USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) and Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). Registration begins at 8:30 a.m. with the tour starting promptly at 9:00 a.m. Pre-registration by September 7th is highly encouraged by contacting Gail White at the Tidewater AREC (757-657-6450, ext. 430 or guwhite@vt.edu). If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 am and 4:30 pm to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event.
Jul-26-2011
Field Corn (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Handy Bt Trait Table: Midwest corn hybrids
This came across my desk the other day, and I hope you find it as useful as I have. The "Handy Bt Trait Table", by Chris DiFonzo, Michigan State University, and Eileen Cullen, University of Wisconsin, has a great summary table for MidWest hybrids. The table lists the traits currently available (last updated Feb. 2011), insects controlled, and refuge size per trait. The table does not address refuge information for corn planted in cotton designated counties. That information can be obtained by checking with your supplier and/or reviewing the product use guide. [More]
Jul-26-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Gavel Approved for use on Pumpkins and Winter Squash
Gavel 75DF is now approved for use on pumpkins and winter squash. See attached label for updated rates/usages. [More]
Jul-22-2011
Field Corn (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Results of the 2011 corn earworm moth field corn survey
Please click "More" to see Ames Herbert's annual field corn survey for predicting corn earworm activity in other crops. [More]
Jul-21-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap catches for the week ending July 21, 2011
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) black light trap catches for this week totaled 33 in Studley/Mechanicsville, 65 in Petersburg, 2 in Warsaw, 2 in Painter, and 59 in Virginia Beach. No BMSB were caught in Southampton, Prince George, or Suffolk black light traps. Please click "More" for the data table. [More]
Jul-21-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth trap captures for the week ending July 21, 2011
Corn earworm moth black light trap catches remain low, with a range of 0.1 to 3.6 per night. Please click "More" to see the black light data table. In 2010, trap catch numbers began their upward climb during the last week of July. Also, Helene Doughty reported that pheromone traps in Pungo captured a weekly total of 2 corn earworm moths at the Baker farm (the Henley farm trap was damaged). Eleven corn earworm moths were captured in the Hampton Roads AREC pheromone trap in Virginia Beach, and 9 were caught in the Eastern Shore AREC pheromone trap last week. [More]
Jul-20-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Heavy corn earworm activity in the Northern Neck of Virginia and summary of insecticide work in sweet corn
Based on pheromone moth traps monitored by Rafe Parker from Parker Farms, Oak Grove, Va, corn earworm moth activity has picked up significantly in the Northern Neck Region of Virginia. Counts jumped from less than 10 for past 2 weeks to about 100 moths this week. these moths will be flying to sweet corn, soybeans, cotton, green beans, and tomatoes among other crops. Be on the lookout for the eggs and small larvae of this pest, or begin the preventative spray programs. There are a wide range of effective insecticides for this pest. Sweet corn is probably the most difficult crop to achieve effective control of corn earworm because very few insecticides kill the eggs, eggs develop and hatch quickly in the summer heat, and larvae move down the silks and into ears where they are protected. Click More to view a summary of recent insecticide trials performed on sweet corn in Eastern Virginia. [More]
Jul-18-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Admire Pro label replaces Provado
Bayer CropScience is consolidating the insecticide labels for Provado and Admire-Pro into one. The company is phasing out Provado and will only be offering Admire-Pro in the future. Click more news to find a Provado to Admire-Pro conversion table and the new Admire-Pro label. Please contact Dr. Matt Mahoney if you have questions. Matthew J. Mahoney, Ph.D. Field Development & Market Support Bayer CropScience (410) 822-5215 Office (410) 829-3147 Cell ________________________________________ [More]
Jul-14-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap catches for the week ending July 14, 2011
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) black light trap catches for this week totaled 28 in Petersburg and 2 in Warsaw. No BMSB were caught in Chesapeake, Southampton, Prince George, or Suffolk black light traps. Thanks to trap operators Mark Kraemer, Mary Beahm, Watson Lawrence, Neil Clark, Scott Reiter, and the entomology crew from Suffolk for their reports. Please click "More" for the data table. [More]
Jul-14-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for the week ending July 14, 2011
Corn earworm moth black light trap catches were moderately low, with a range of 0.3 to 6 per night. Please click "More" to see the black light data table. The following are acknowledged for this week's reports: Watson Lawrence (Chesapeake), Mark Kraemer (Petersburg), Mary Beahm (Warsaw), Scott Reiter (Prince George), Neil Clark (Southampton), and the entomology crew in Suffolk. [More]
Jul-14-2011
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
2011 Bean Plataspid Survey...by Eric Day, VT Insect ID Lab
The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria, also known as the kudzu bug is a new pest that has established itself in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina during the past two years. Its establishment in Virginia would be of concern for soybean growers as it can be a potential pest. In late June and Mid July of this year roadside kudzu was surveyed in 7 counties in Virginia. Sites in Mecklenburg, Halifax, Pittsylvania, Franklin, Carroll, Patrick, and Henry Counties were checked with a sweep net for the presence of bean plataspids and fortunately none were found. These sites will be revisited throughout the summer and early fall, as early detection will help in developing potential control strategies. Its not know if it will become a pest of beans in Virginia at this time. Submitted by Eric R. Day, July 14, 2011
Jul-14-2011
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton stink bug and new threshold update
As cotton enters the blooming period, we should begin transitioning from plant bug management strategies to protect squares--to stink bug management strategies to protect developing bolls. Stink bug populations seem to be on the rise and we are already hearing of a few fields with upwards of 30% internal boll damage. In Virginia we are faced with a large variation in the maturity stage of cotton fields. Early planted fields (end of April to 1st week of May) have been blooming for 3 weeks or so with a few of the oldest bolls almost at the stink-bug-safe stage (25 days or older, 1.25 inch-diameter or larger). The majority of their bolls are still stink-bug-susceptible (5-24 days old, 0.5-1.24 inch-diameter). Later planted fields (2nd and 3rd weeks of May) are just beginning to bloom. This means that no single recommendation can cover all cases, except that we are firm in the belief that when making stink bug control decisions, following the new Dynamic Threshold will fit. Basically, with this new threshold the allowable percent of bolls with internal stink bug damage changes with crop age. This threshold is based on two concepts: that cotton plants can compensate for relatively high levels of early season boll damage, and that the number of stink bug susceptible bolls changes as plants mature. These concepts were thoroughly evaluated in a cooperative multiple-state project (VA, NC, SC, GA, AL) resulting in the development of the Dynamic Threshold (1st week of bloom-50%; 2nd week-30%; 3rd, 4th and 5th weeks-10%; 6th week-20%; 7th week-30%; 8th week-50%). The many field evaluations also showed that applying the new threshold consistently resulted in higher profit ($) per acre. If an insecticide treatment is needed for controlling stink bugs, there is a lot of misinformation being passed around as to the best choices. Although the neonicotinoid insecticides are effective against plant bugs, they are not as effective against stink bugs as products like Bidrin or high rates of the pyrethroids. Green stink bugs are easily controlled with most any pyrethroid. Brown stink bugs, if the dominant species in the field, are a bit more difficult to control and products containing bifenthrin seem to have a better track record. Another misconception is that a single treatment will provide weeks of residual control. Not so. Although they provide a good kill of existing adults and nymphs, none provide residual control against newly invading adult stink bugs. If they do continue to invade fields, especially if they invade several days to weeks after initial sprays, additional treatments would be needed. This has not been common in Virginia, but each year is different so the best defense is careful and consistent crop scouting and applying the threshold until all harvestable bolls are safe from bug damage.
Jul-14-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Three local Cotton Insect Field Scouting Clinics next week
I will be conducting three Cotton Field Scouting Clinics next week to help cotton growers, consultants and industry reps learn more about scouting fields for insect pests. Dr. Jack Bachelor from NC State will be with us at the Southampton Clinic. The primary focus will be on stink bugs and determining spray thresholds. Interested parties will meet at one of the locations listed below and then drive to selected nearby fields that have been identified for the clinic. Please meet promptly at the times indicated. The clinics should last one hour. Water, soft drinks and light snacks will be provided for attendees. Wednesday, JULY 20th at 4 PM. Southampton County Location-Indian Town Hunt Club on Carys Bridge Road in Capron. Carys Bridge Road runs between Route 35 and downtown Capron. Thursday, JULY 21st at 12:00 noon. Dinwiddie, Sussex and Prince George County location-Stony Creek, Galilee Baptist Church parking lot on the right side of Hwy 40 just west of where it crosses I-95. Thursday, JULY 21st at 4 PM Isle of Wight County Location-Meet at the Dairy Queen on 460 in Windsor in the parking lot. Please contact me or the local VA Cooperative Extension Agent if you have any questions. Best Regards, Ames Herbert
Jul-14-2011
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Peanut insect and mite update (Brandenburg, Jordan and Herbert)
Following are collaborative comments by Rick Brandenburg, David Jordan (NC State) and me regarding the insect/mite situation on peanuts. Rootworm: July is the month when we think about spider mites and southern corn rootworm. The two are quite different in that spider mites do best under dry conditions and rootworms do best under wet conditions. Add to that the fact that rootworms must be treated preventively and that if it turns dry, not only will you not have rootworms, you will encourage spider mites with the rootworm application. This situation creates lots of unknowns for growers. Make sure you use the southern corn rootworm advisory to make decisions about rootworm treatments. Light, sandy soils will rarely see rootworm problems but are most prone to spider mite outbreaks. Heavier soils retain soil moisture and are more likely to suffer rootworm infestations. July is the key month to treat for rootworms as we have seen poor performance form rootworm insecticides applied in August. Spider mites: Keep an eye on the weather. Hot and dry will always equal a threat from spider mites. Also, be very careful with automatic pyrethroid applications as these can flare mites. If mites become a problem, there are only three products registered for use in peanuts that provide spider mite control: Comite, Danitol and Brigade. Of these, Comite provides the best control and if applied early in the infestation cycle and has often worked with a single application. But in recent years Comite has become difficult for grower to find, and has no activity on worms. Products like Danitol or products with bifenthrin (e.g., Brigade) should be considered if worms and mites are both present. Both can provide decent worm control and at higher rates can provide mite suppression. But sometimes one application of Danitol (or Brigade) might not be completely effective as they knock down adult and larval mites but not eggs. Last year fields were overwhelmed in some areas and a single application wasnt enough due to the life cycle and high populations. Two applications spaced 5 days apart may have paid dividends under 2010 pressure. Corn earworm: We are approaching worm season in peanuts. We are in the process of doing our annual field corn survey for corn earworm to determine the extent of that population, as it is a good predictor of what is to come in peanuts, cotton and soybean. Preliminary results are showing a moderate to large population in corn, and one that is a bit ahead of schedule. Moth counts in black light traps are still very low which indicates that adults are not moving out of corn yet. We expect to see this picking up in 7 to 10 days. More will be provided when the survey is completed next week. The latest corn earworm pyrethroid resistance monitoring results from Virginia did not show a large jump in resistance level over the past few weeks, but we are continually monitoring and will keep you updated.
Jul-07-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug trap update for June 7, 2011
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) black light trap catches for this week totaled 28 in Petersburg and 11 in Virginia Beach. No BMSB were caught in Isle of Wight, Southampton, Prince George, Dinwiddie, Warsaw, or Suffolk black light traps. Thanks to trap operators Mark Kraemer, Helene Doughty, Janet Spencer, Neil Clark, Scott Reiter, Mike Parrish, Mary Beahm, and the entomology crew from Suffolk for their reports. Please click "More" for the data table. [More]
Jul-07-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth trap catches for the week ending July 7, 2011
Corn earworm moth black light trap catches remain low, with a range of 0 to 3 per night. Please click "More" to see the black light data table. Also, pheromone traps in Pungo captured a weekly total of 4 (Baker farm) and 6 (Henley farm) corn earworm moths; zero were captured at the Hampton Roads AREC in Virginia Beach; and 6 were caught at the Eastern Shore AREC in Painter. The following are acknowledged for this week's reports: Helene Doughty (Virginia Beach, Pungo, Eastern Shore), Mark Kraemer (Petersburg), Mary Beahm (Warsaw), Scott Reiter (Prince George), Neil Clark (Southampton), Mike Parrish (Dinwiddie), Janet Spencer (Isle of Wight) and the entomology crew in Suffolk. [More]
Jul-07-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm resistance monitoring update for July 7, 2011
As of July 7, we have tested a total of 822 corn earworm moths in our pyrethroid resistance monitoring program. The attached graph (click "More") shows data from 2010 and 2011. This week's mean survivorship was 33%, down slightly from last week's 41%. As Dr. Herbert mentioned in last week's advisory, these levels of moth survivorship are high and may indicate a potential for less-than-satisfactory levels of control with pyrethroid insecticides. We will continue our vial tests to monitor resistance potential in this pest. [More]
Jul-01-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Cucurbit Downy Mildew in NC and NJ
For more information on recent nearby outbreaks of CDM see the attached report. Thanks Steve [More]
Jul-01-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Corn earworm pheromone trap catch for the northern neck of Virginia
Raef Parker from Parker Farms Oak Grove, Va reports the following catch of corn earworm moths this week: Both traps averaged about 1 moth per night this week. Thus egg laying from this pest is probably low right now in the Northern Neck of Virginia.
Jun-30-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Brown marmorated stink bug black light trap catches for the week ending June 30, 2011
Many cooperators are watching for brown marmorated stink bugs (BMSB) in their black light traps (in addition to corn earworm moths). A total of 10 BMSB were caught in Hanover County's trap this past week; 6 were caught in Virginia Beach. No BMSB were caught in Chesapeake, Southampton, or Suffolk black light traps. Thanks to Watson Lawrence, Neil Clark, Helene Doughty, Laura Maxey, and the Tidewater AREC entomology crew for their reports this week.
Jun-30-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth counts for the week ending June 30, 2011
Corn earworm moth black light trap catches remain low, with a range of 0.3 to 2 per night. Watson Lawrence reported 0.9 in Chesapeake; Neil Clark had 0.3 in Southampton; Laura Maxey caught 2.0 in Hanover; and we caught 1.7 per night in Suffolk, VA. Please click "More" to see the black light data table. Also, Helene Doughty reported that pheromone traps in Pungo captured a weekly total of 6 (Baker farm) and 29 (Henley farm) corn earworm moths, with 2 captured in the Hampton Roads AREC pheromone trap in Virginia Beach. [More]
Jun-29-2011
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Peanut insect pest update
The peanut crop has responded to the recent rains and in some fields rows are already nearly touching the middles. The old-timers used to say that the best yields occurred in years when plants shook hands by the 4th of July. In that regard, things look very promising. We are seeing an increase in potato leafhopper populations with untreated fields reaching 5-10% hopper burned leaves. Our recommendations for hopper management are to scout field prior to any planned fungicide applications (e.g., for leaf spot) and tank mix an insecticide if plants are approaching 25% hopper burn and hoppers are still active. Automatic sprays may or may not have value. It is easy to check fields for hopper and make those tank mix applications IF NEEDED. Unnecessary insecticide applications are never good, as they waste money and kill beneficial insects that can help suppress future pests by eating their eggs and immatures (e.g., corn earworm). We are also getting some calls about the need for Lorsban 15G applications for soil insects, especially southern corn rootworm. Wet years favor rootworm populations, as the eggs and larvae require high levels of soil moisture to survive. But even in a wetter summer, we have seen little value for Lorsban applications in the sandiest fields. We recommend confining Lorsban to fields with heavier soils and those with a history of rootworm damage.
Jun-29-2011
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton insect pest update
The cotton crop in Virginia looks as good as any in recent years. Recent rains have resulted in lush growth, to the point that growers are starting to make plant growth regulator applications. Along with this lush growth comes an increase in the levels of plant bug populations, but we will take it---and deal with it. Will we see a larger population of stink bugs? Will brown marmorated stink bugs attack cotton? Too soon to tell, but we will be checking and reporting our findings.
Jun-29-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm pyrethroid resistance monitoring update
As of June 29, we have tested a total of 687 corn earworm moths in our pyrethroid resistance monitoring program and the results are rather foreboding. If you open the attached PowerPoint graph you will see the data from 2010 and 2011, to date. We are seeing levels of survivors reaching 40%--not good for this early in the season. Of course things could change as we move into the season. But recent history has shown that once survivorship reaches these levels, although there will be some ups-and-downs, the overall levels will stay pretty high. The areas of the state where conditions remain dry will be at the greatest risk to intensive moth flights and the potential for less-than-satisfactory levels of control with pyrethroid insecticides. [More]
Jun-28-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late Blight found on Eastern Shore of Virginia
For more information about the recent discovery of late blight in Virginia see the attached file. Thanks Steve [More]
Jun-24-2011
General Comments (Other)
From Steven Rideout
Eastern Shore AREC Field Day Reminder
The Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center Annual Research Field Day will be held on Tuesday, June 28, 2011, in Painter, Virginia. This year our field day will feature plot research demonstrating methyl bromide alternatives for vegetable production along with nutrient, weed, disease, insect and general production techniques for polyethylene mulch systems, tomatoes, potatoes, corn, cotton, soybeans and more. Registration will begin at 8:00 AM with field tours beginning at 9:00 AM. A complimentary lunch will begin at noon. For questions or assistance with special needs, please call 757-414-0724.
Jun-24-2011
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Plant bug in cotton, product choice and restriction on Bidrin use
We are seeing a few more fields than usual with plant bugs and damage. According to Johnny Parker with Commonwealth Gin, the number of fields reaching the threshold is about 3-5 percent, and that is based on his surveying about 100 fields over the past week. Since fields are still in the pre-bloom stage, thresholds are based primarily on square retention: Do not let fields drop below 80%. Plant bug damage is distinct and pretty easy to see. Bugs prefer to feed on the small pinhead terminal squares causing them to turn black and shed. You can find the tiny black squares (hit the More button to see the image) or the scar where the square was shed. We do not have a lot of experience doing insecticide trials with plant bugs so I called one of my colleges in a state that deals with a lot of plant bug pressure. He recommends using only the insecticides in the neonicotinoid class (e.g., Admire Pro @ 0.9-1.7 oz, Belay @ 3-4 oz, Centric, @ 1.25-2.0 oz) and that they are effective. For resistance management and fear of flaring secondary pests, they recommend avoiding use of either pyrethroids (e.g., Bifenthrin, Karate, Baythroid) or organophosphates (e.g., Bidrin, Orthene). And, he reminded me that Bidrin CANNOT be used during this pre-bloom period. These are the statements on the labels (Bidrin: Early SeasonEmergence to pre-square; Late SeasonFirst bloom to 30 days prior to harvest) (Bidrin XP: Use only after cotton reaches the First Bloom stage of growth). [More]
Jun-23-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Early corn earworm activity in Virginia subsides
After some higher than usual corn earworm pest activity for the spring in Virginia, moth catch at traps has subsided. Raef Parker in the Northern Neck of Virginia is maintaining a couple corn earworm pheromone traps. A couple weeks ago he was catching several moths per night, but this week, the traps have gone silent, which is a good indication that new eggs of this pest are not being laid. Typically, corn earworm pest activity picks up dramatically in mid-July. So, hopefully, we're in the clear for a little while anyway. TK
Jun-23-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap averages for the week ending June 23, 2011
Most black light trap operators have their traps up and running now. The Tidewater AREC trap in Suffolk, VA captured an average of 2.6 corn earworm moths per night, while Neil Clark (Virginia Cooperative Extension, Southampton County) reported zero corn earworm moths for this week. Please click "More" to view the summary table. [More]
Jun-16-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Stink bug update
Following a bit of local news coverage about the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and its potential to become a problem in our coastal plain region, I have received numerous contacts from local homeowners/gardeners. To date, of those that have been able to provide insect samples, none have been the dreaded critter. Most have been either our native brown stink bug, or the squash bug, which is beginning to attack squash plants throughout the region. Although damaging, we understand these insects and know how to manage them...as opposed to BMSB which would pose a much bigger challenge. So for now, the good news is that BMSB has not been reported attacking crops in our area...yet. Locals are encouraged to send in suspected samples for ID (Attn: Ames Herbert, Tidewater AREC, 6321 Holland Road, Suffolk, VA, 23437). We recommend that folks put any bugs-in-question into a zip-lock sandwich bag and into the freezer. When mailing, just pad them to prevent breakage during the delivery process.
Jun-16-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm update
Although we are beginning to catch a few more moths than last week, we are still between generations. If things go according to previous patterns, the second generation will peak at a time to coincide with when field corn is developing ears. Some fields are beginning to tassel, so it wont be long. We will be tracking and posting our trap catch and AVT (adult vial pyrethroid test) results weekly.
Jun-16-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in peanuts and home garden tomatoes
Incidence of TSWV is increasing in the peanut crop. We have the advantage of having a lot of peanut thrips trials evaluating varieties and many insecticide control options where we are also able to rate TSWV severity. Hopefully, we will find the most effective alternatives for minimizing both thrips and the disease. We are also getting reports from home gardeners that tomato plants are showing disease symptoms. When disease symptoms begin to express in a plant, there is essentially nothing that can be done to decrease the severity. Some feel that removing infected tomato plants will prevent, or at least minimize the risk of transmission to other plants. Maybe, but the transmission has to occur from adult thrips that acquired the virus by feeding on infected plants while in the larval stage. An insecticide protection regime designed to control thrips can help a lot in reducing the spread of the virus from plant to plant.
Jun-16-2011
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Spider mites in soybean
We diagnosed a very heavy spider mite infestation on a soybean seedling sample from the Northern Neck area but are not hearing of widespread problems...yet. Although some areas got some decent amounts of rainfall over the last weekend, some areas are still pretty dry with conditions very conducive to spider mite outbreaks. If treatments are needed, Dimethoate is likely the best product choice as it has efficacy against adults and immatures, and some systemic activity. But, according to one of the suppliers with Cheminova, it is important to be certain the product is newly manufactured and has been stored properly. If the product is old or has been exposed to extreme high and low temperature fluctuations, it can be denatured which greatly reduces its efficacy.
Jun-15-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
New 2ee label for use of acephate on field borders for stink bugs
United Phosphorus, Inc (UPI) has issued a FIFRA Section 2(ee) recommendation with Acephate 97UP for the suppression of brown marmorated stinkbugs for field borders, fence rows, ditch banks and borrow pits. The states include Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, West Virginia and Maryland. Attached is the 2(ee) recommendation below. Should you have questions please feel free to contact: Tony Estes United Phosphorus, Inc. Cell Phone: 864-202-7526 tony.estes@uniphos.com Click more for attached file of 2ee label. [More]
Jun-15-2011
Field Corn (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Stink bugs in field corn
Recent reports of stink bugs feeding in the whorl of field corn have come to my attention. There was no word on what species of stink bug they were, or how extensive the damage is, but whichever stink bug it is, their piercing-sucking mouthparts can reach the growing tip of young corn plants. Insecticides labeled to control stink bugs in field corn are available and can be accessed from Virginia Tech's Cooperative Extension Pest Management Guide for field crops. Disclosure, I don't have any efficacy data on stink bug control in field corn. This is largely due to the sporadic nature of these pests over the years.This picture has changed with the recent invasion of the brown marmorated stink bug in Virginia. That said, I tend to lean toward FMC products Hero 15EC and Stallion 15EC, which combine two insecticides. Hero contains two pyrethroids: bifenthrin and zeta-cypermethrin and Stallion contains one pyrethriod and one organophosate: zeta-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos. One note of caution, if you're going to use either of these products, I recommend using the high rates, because brown marmorated stink bugs have the tendency to re-invade. Also, the next potential threat to field corn from brown marmorated, or other stink bugs, is when corn begins to enter the reproductive stage. Contact: Rod Youngman, youngman@vt.edu, 540-231-9118 (office), 540-357-2558 (cell).
Jun-15-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Early season corn earworm activity and control options in sweet corn
Over the past couple of weeks many areas of Virginia experienced some unusually high corn earworm moth activity. This early brief peak of moths was not typical, was likely not the result of migratory moths coming up from the southern U.S., but rather was the result of overwintering corn earworm pupae in Virginia and the fact that we had record high densities of this pest last summer. Nonetheless, this early blip in activity has pretty much run its course. However, if sweet corn was at a vulnerable state (tassel or later), there could be much more "worm" pressure on early sweet corn. Based on 30 years of monitoring, the major flight of corn earworms will likely occur in mid-July in Virginia. I've attachded a summary of our sweetcorn insecticide research data at Virginia Tech. Click "More" to get this report. Best regards, Tom Kuhar [More]
Jun-10-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - June 10
Please see latest VPDA [More]
Jun-02-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - June 3
Here is the latest VPDA [More]
Jun-01-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Please report any observations of the brown marmorated stink bug
Greetings growers, crop consultants, researchers, and extension personnel in Virginia. Several entomologists in the mid-Atlantic U.S. are now desperately trying to elucidate the biology and ecology of the new invasive brown marmorated stink bug, which has plagued many homeowners and tree fruit producers among others in Virginia. The pest potential of this stink bug to Virginia Agriculture is tremendous. We need your help with spotting various life stages of the bug around your garden, yard, or farm. We want to document what plants the bugs are getting on and when, and are they reproducing. So, I've attached a Word file (click More) of the life stages of this bug to help you identify it. I'm asking you to please e-mail me any spottings of the bug on plants that you make. Record the bug's life stage, your location, host plant, and if any injury was observed. These anecdotal reports will be very valuable to us. Many thanks, Tom Thomas P. Kuhar Associate Professor Department of Entomology Virginia Tech 216 Price Hall Blacksburg, VA 24061-0319 Office: 540-231-6129 Cell: 757-710-9781 Fax: 540-231-9131 e-mail: tkuhar@vt.edu [More]
May-26-2011
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Thrips update, a tough year
We are definitely having a tough thrips year in cotton, somewhat less in peanut. Growers have reported less control than normal with treatments of Orthene/Acephate, even at rates that used to provide good control. Two things may be happening. One is that treatments did kill a lot of thrips but fields are being continually invaded by adults, especially from nearby grain fields that are drying down. Or, earlier treatments killed most of the tobacco thrips and left or encouraged outbreaks of western flower thrips that are much less susceptible to Orthene/Acephate. The only way to confirm a western thrips population is to provide our lab with a soapy/jar sample of clipped seedlings. We rinse them from the plants and ID them using a microscope. Without the knowledge of what species are present, it becomes a question of what insecticide to use. We are rating trips trials daily to generate the data to help guide that decision. For example, in one test we made two foliar applications, the first at bud stage and the second in 7 days. As of this week, we had an average of 71 thrips larvae in the 5-plant sample from the untreated control (definitely a lot of pressure). Orthene 97 at 4 oz provided 87% control, Radiant at 6 oz provided 78% control, Vydate C-LV at 17 oz 77% control, Lannate 2.4LV at 12 oz 67% control, and Karate Z at 1.28 oz 8% control. There were two surprises. Dimethoate 4EC at 8 oz provided 95% control, but this is higher than we have ever seen previously with this product and it may be a misread. And, the new product Benevia 10OD (Cyazypyr) by Dupont, which is not labeled yet, provided 98% control. Here are a few thoughts based on these data and what we are seeing in fields. First, cotton in many fields is close to being in the 4-5 true leaf stage, on the other side of the thrips pressure period when no further thrips treatments are needed. With the recent rains and warm-hot weather, we will see a lot of growth in the next week. Second, there does not seem to be a silver bullet product for thrips control as some may lead you to believe. Orthene/Acephate is still hard to beat, with the exception of this new Benevia which is not labeled, yet. But there is a risk to multiple applications of Orthene. It is tough on beneficial insects and could lead to a much higher risk to flaring mites and aphids....remember that Temik was providing early season suppression of both of these pests. If a second spray is being considered (still seeing damage to the new bud), it might make good sense cost-wise to shift to Dimethoate at 8 oz, which seems to work pretty well and can provide some control of spider mites (is used by soybean growers for spider mite control in DE and MD). The cotton entomologist at Univ of Georgia also recommends Bidrin at 3.2 oz. I have not tested Bidrin, but trust his knowledge. We will continue to monitor thrips and our many research trials and look forward to sharing our result at our upcoming field tour on June 2.
May-26-2011
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm pyrethroid vial test results--alarming early season results
We have initiated our annual program to assess adult corn earworms (moths) for susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. As you may recall, this process has been in place for many years throughout much of the southeast. Adult corn earworms (moths) are captured live and placed individually into small glass vials pretreated with either a pyrethroid insecticide, or untreated as a control. After 24 hours, vials are inspected to determine the number of dead (susceptible) and alive (resistant) moths. Each year we capture and test as many corn earworm moths as we can manage to track the percent that survive. This survival percentage is at least an indicator of how susceptible corn earworms are to applications of the many pyrethroid insecticide options for growers. We are already seeing some alarming results. First, our moth captures are very high for this early in the season. As of this week (May 23-27), we have already captured and tested over 200 moths, many more than last year at this time. The largest sample was tested mid week and 25% survived. This is a very high early season survival rate compared with previous years and is not a good way to start the season. We will press to capture and test as many corn earworm moths as we can over the next several weeks. Stay tuned to this VA Ag Pest Advisory for weekly updates.
May-20-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - May 20
Attached is the latest VPDA. [More]
May-18-2011
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Invitation reminder and agenda for the June 2 field tour at the Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC in Suffolk, VA
The Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) will hold an early-season field crops tour during the morning of Thursday, June 2nd, 2011. The tour will be held at the Center's research farm (1045 Hare Road, Suffolk, VA). Specialists will display field research in progress and present information for the 2011 crop season. Topics include disease and insect control in cotton, peanut, wheat, and soybean, weed control in Liberty-Link soybean, and ongoing physiology research in peanut and wheat. Of particular interest will be ongoing work to address regulatory and industry changes resulting in the restricted use or loss of certain crop protection chemicals such as Vapam® and Temik®. Certified crop adviser continuing education credits and pesticide applicator recertification credits (categories 1-A, 1-C, 10, and 60) will be available for participants. All interested in commercial production of field crops are invited to attend. Arrival is at 8:30 am with the program starting promptly at 9:00 am and running through lunch at 12:30 pm. More information is available through local Virginia Cooperative Extension offices or by contacting the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center main office at 757-657-6450, ext 402. Please see the attached tour agenda (pdf). If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 am and 4:30 pm to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event. [More]
May-13-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory for May 13
Please let me know if you have any questions. Steve [More]
May-13-2011
Cotton (Insect)
From Jessica Samler
Thrips numbers are increasing...'thrips season' has begun
The following is an advisory from Ames Herbert. Thrips species captured on sticky cards at the Tidewater AREC in Suffolk, VA, are increasing, and we expect these counts to rise for several more weeks. The adult thrips are migrating into fields from adjacent winter hosts. Counts of adult thrips have risen from about 20 per card during the second week of April to an average of 90 per card for the first week of May. The species complex consists of tobacco (mostly), eastern flower, onion, soybean, and an occasional western flower thrips (based on a subsample of 30 thrips per card). For more details on sticky card thrips captures, please see the attached graph. Sticky cards will catch all thrips species, not just the pests of cotton, therefore we also sample what is present on the cotton plant itself using soapy water thrips samples. Soapy water samples involve cutting cotton plants, submerging them in soapy water (to dislodge the thrips), vacuum filtering the sample, and counting all adult and immature thrips under a stereoscope. Soapy samples were taken on May 9 and 10 from cotton fields planted around April 20 near Boykins and Ivor, VA (cotton plants were at the 1-2 true leaf stage). Additionally, samples were taken from research plots at the Tidewater AREC that were at the 1st true leaf bud stage. In all samples, only adult thrips were present. This is important because foliar insecticide applications should target the thrips larvae which do most of the damage to seedlings. Historically, we have recommended foliar applications when the first true leaf is just expanded (1/4 inch or so). This usually coincides with the onset of larval activity. Cotton planted around April 20 is at or beyond that stage. Cotton planted a week later has not yet reached that stage (bud, only). Each year is different of course, but the many consecutive cool nights are slowing the progress of cotton and slowing the development of thrips. This may be a year to wait a few more days before making a foliar application, wait until a few more larvae are present on the plants. Thanks to my graduate student, Jessica Samler, and my assistant, Sean Malone, for taking the data used to develop this advisory and preparing the draft. [More]
May-13-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
New Uniform Label
Attached is a new label for Uniform from Syngenta Crop Protection. Several vegetable crops including succulent beans have been added. Please review specific instructions for in-furrow usage, particularly with succulent beans. Please let me know if you have any questions. [More]
May-09-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
New Ranman Label
Attached is a new Sec. 3 label for Ranman that includes the Brassica crop grouping targeting downy mildew and club root. Please let me know if you have any questions. [More]
May-06-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - May 6
Attached is the latest VPDA, let me know if there are any questions. [More]
May-05-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Presidio Supplemental Label Released
The EPA has approved the addition of Brassica Leafy Vegetables, Root and Tuber Vegetables, Potatoes, and Carrots to Presidio. This Supplemental label also reduced the rotational interval for wheat from 18 months to 30 days. I have attached the Supplemental Label. [More]
May-02-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
New miticide Kanemite labeled for vegetables
Vegetable growers now have another new miticide to combat spider mites and other pest mites. Kanemite, Arysta LifeSciences premium miticide now has fruiting vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, etc.) and edible podded beans also. Kanemite is labeled on grapes, pome fruit, and strawberries. It controls all life stages of the labeled mites, and it has a short PHI and REI. Kanemite is easy on beneficial species as well. Ive attached a current specimen label for your update and information. For more information please contact: Frank Donohue Northeast Territory Manager Arysta LifeScience Company 215-370-2540 Frank.donohue@arystalifescience.com [More]
Apr-29-2011
General Comments (Other)
From Steven Rideout
Date set for Virginia Tech - Eastern Shore AREC's Annual Field Day
The Eastern Shore AREC will host its annual field day at their facility in Painter, VA on June 28, 2011. Registration will begin at 8:00 AM with the tour beginning at 9:00 AM. A lunch will be provided at the end of the tour (~12:00 PM). A more specific agenda will be developed soon, but, the tour will include stops on weed management, soil fertility, insect management, water quality, and disease management for vegetable and field crops. Please mark this date on your calendar and we hope that you can join us.
Apr-29-2011
Small Grains (Other)
From Steven Rideout
2011 Virginia Small Grains Field Day - May 19, 2011
The 2011 Virginia Small Grains Field Day will be held 8AM - 2PM on May 19, 2011 in Spring Grove, VA (Prince George County). A number of demonstrations and speakers have been arranged for this event. Topics will include: variety selection, disease control, insecticidal seed treatments, growth regulators, cover crops and fertilization regimes. Please visit the following website for more information on the location, agenda, and potential sponsorship opportunities: http://www.virginiagrains.com/events/small-grains-field-day/ Thanks Steve
Apr-29-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - April 29
Attached is the first VPDA for 2011. Please me know if you have any questions. Steve [More]
Apr-17-2011
Forages (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Third DD Update for Billbugs in Orchardgrass
The DD model value for 4/15/11 is 290 DD, about 10 DD over threshold. It's time to make a management decision based on presence/absence of paired feeding holes detected within 20 ft of field edges. You can reach me at 540-231-9118 or youngman@vt.edu Thank you
Apr-11-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Cucurbit Downy Mildew found on transplants in South Carolina
Cucurbit downy mildew was found this past week on Florida grown transplants (squash and zucchini) at a Home Depot in Charleston, SC. Once discovered, the transplants were destroyed, but, several may have been sold prior to discovery. The transplants originated from Pure Beauty Farms in Miami, FL (where cucurbit downy mildew is currently active). Growers and home owners should thoroughly inspect transplants prior to purchasing. We will continue to monitor the situation in SC to see if in-field development of downy mildew occurs. Let us know if you have any questions.
Apr-08-2011
Forages (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Second DD update for billbugs in orchardgrass
The number of accumulated degree-days (DD) for bluegrass and hunting billbugs in orchardgrass since 1/1/11 are starting to move. As of 4/6/11, 214 DD have accumulated. Model forecast for 4/13/11 is 284 DD. Recall that at least 280 DD are needed before taking any action. Within the next week or so you need to start checking your field borders for paired-field holes. My contact information is, 540-231-9118 (office), 540-357-2558 (cell), youngman@vt.edu. Thank you.
Apr-07-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Manzate Pro-Stick (mancozeb) now registered for use on pepper, broccoli, cabbage, and lettuce
Effective yesterday, the use of Manzate was approved for use on pepper and other crops. This is a substantial and much needed development for pepper specifically due to the recent loss of maneb. Attached is the Supplemental Label for Manzate Pro-Stick, please let me know if you have any further questions. [More]
Mar-28-2011
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Poncho/VOTiVO seed treatment registered for cotton
Bayer CropScience announces the registration of Poncho®/VOTiVO" seed treatment for use on cotton. Following are quotes from the release statement. Note that this treatment is not a stand-alone for thrips control, but must be used in conjunction with an additional insecticide (e.g., Aeris, Gaucho, or other). To control early season insect pests such as thrips, aphids and others, Poncho/VOTiVO should be paired with additional seed-applied insecticides (Gaucho® or Aeris®) from Bayer CropScience. Poncho/VOTiVO protects against damage from a broad range of nematode species, including reniform and root-knot. It provides a new biological mode of action that introduces revolutionary living-barrier science. Employing a new biological mode of action with a unique bacteria strain that lives and grows with young roots, Poncho/VOTiVO creates a living barrier that grows with and protects early season seedlings and roots, explained product development manager Louis Holloway. The result means higher cotton yields through a healthier root system and a more vigorous and uniform crop. According to the Cotton Disease Loss Estimate Committee, nematodes remain a major yield-reducing pest of cotton with more than 500,000 bales of yield potential lost to nematode damage in 2009. Poncho/VOTiVO protects against multiple types of nematodes, making it the perfect partner for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. For more information, contact your Bayer CropScience field representative or visit: http://www.bayercropscience.us/products/seed-treatments/poncho-votivo/
Mar-24-2011
Forages (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Orchardgrass: First update on billbug degree-days
Greetings According to the Agmaster degree-day collection service - same company we've been using. Given a Jan. 1, 2011 start date, and as of Mar. 23, 172 DD have accumulated. Model predictions for April 2, are 195 DD. Recall, 280 DD represents the start of billbug adult activity moving back into orchardgrass. At this point and beyond you need to start monitoring field edges for the paired-feeding holes that adults make. This is a presence/absence sample that gives you an idea on whether or not they're in a field. There are no thresholds for spraying or not spraying - personal judgement call. As always, if you need more information, contact your local extension agent or me. My office number is 540-231-9118, cell 540-357-2558, email youngman@vt.edu
Mar-24-2011
Field Corn (Insect)
From Rod Youngman
Section 18 for Avipel use in Virginia - APPROVED by EPA
It's official. EPA has approved the Section 18 for Avipel use on field and sweet corn planted in Virginia. Recall that birds need to feed on a few Avipel treated seeds before they will move on. Avipel does not kill birds. As always, if you have any questions please don't hesitate to contact me. Rod Youngman: youngman@vt.edu; office 540-231-9118; cell 540-357-2558; FAX 540-231-9131.
Mar-16-2011
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Invitation to the Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC's Early Summer Row Crops Tour--June 2, 2011 at 9:00 am (at the Hare Road Research Farm)
The Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center will be hosting their annual 'Early Summer Row Crops Tour: Insects, Diseases, and Agronomics' on Thursday, June 2, 2011. The tour will begin at 9:00 am at the Tidewater AREC Research Farm (1045 Hare Road, Suffolk, VA) and lunch will be provided, courtesy of Berry Lewis with Bayer CropScience. Further details will follow. If you are interested in an equipment, company or agency display, please contact Ames Herbert (herbert@vt.edu) as soon as possible. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event.
Mar-11-2011
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
New Vegetable / Crop Disease Website Launched
The Plant Pathology program at Virginia Tech's Eastern Shore AREC has launched a new website full of helpful information, pictures, disease updates, and recommendations to help growers identify and control plant diseases. The site is through Facebook and can be accessed at www.facebook.com/vtesarecpp Thanks, Steve
Mar-08-2011
Other (Other)
From Ames Herbert
Apology on email issue
Sorry folks for the email problem. Hopefully it is fixed, thanks to Ron Stinner, NCSU (retired-now-busier-than-ever-grandad).
Mar-08-2011
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
Section 18 for Avipel use in Virginia - down but not out
Greetings, In an email I received yesterday from Micah Raub at VDACS, he said the Section 18 for use of Avipel in Virginia was returned for lack of sufficient economic justification. One of the benchmarks for EPA approval is documentation of 20% loss, which we don't have. However, in lieu of that, grower testimonials for 2010, as many as possible, will go a long way in swaying the argument. So, I need you to fax me (540-231-9131) ASAP your full name and address including County where bird-damaged field(s) was located; field size (ac); unit cost/bag; full name of seed used; row spacing; plant population density (i.e., # seeds planted/ac); and finally, and most important -- out of a ?? acre field, the number of acres that were replanted? For example, 3 of 10 ac were replanted 2 times or 10 of 10 acres were replanted 1 time, etc.. NOTE: If you don't have all the data I'm requesting, provide what you can, and estimate to the best of your ability the rest. Remember, some data is better than no data at all. Also, if you sustained bird losses to corn in 2010, but did not replant, please send the number of acres/field, acres damaged/field, and estimates such as what it would have cost to replant and/or yield loss costs associated with the bird-damaged acres. The sooner I receive this information, the sooner I can send it off to Micah Raubb, who will quickly review it, and then forward on to EPA. So I encourage you to do your part in this important matter. Thank you, Rod
Feb-17-2011
Field Corn (Other)
From Rod Youngman
Avipel Section 18 for Virginia -not yet
You may have heard about the Section 18 I sent to VDACS last Dec. on Avipel; a humane bird repellant product for corn. This announcement will bring you up-to-date on where this Section 18 currently stands. If approved by EPA, Avipel will NOT be registered as a restricted use product. It can be used on field corn as well as sweet corn, and the graphite and liquid slurry formulations are grower applied. The Section 18 document was sent off to VDACS in Dec. 2010. After all the separate committees gave their approval, it passed through VDACS, and is in EPA's hands. The bird injury data and detailed data of crop loss and costs associated with replanting from one grower were very useful. In addition, Scott Reiter requested 2010 bird damage numbers from all ANR agents, which also proved useful. This data along with the grower's data helped me build a case for the Section 18. Micah Raub at VDACS, with whom I was working closely, sent an earlier draft to EPA. According to Micah, there were only a few minor items that needed tightening up, which we were able to resolve over a phone conversation. EPA knows the time-sensitive nature of this request and hopefully, VDACS and I will hear something before the end of February. Mr. Ken Ballinger (Arkion LLC company rep. for Avipel, and my contact: 610-506-3117), says as soon as they hear positive news from EPA they are poised to get labelled stocks of Avipel to distributors in time for spring planting - at least that is the hope. Distributors are encouraged to take orders for Avipel; however, Arkion will not ship product until EPA okays the use of this product. As always, do not hesitate to contact me should have questions. Rod -- R. R. Youngman Professor and Extension Specialist Department of Entomology Virginia Tech 216A Price Hall, MC 0319 Blacksburg, VA 24061 email: youngman@vt.edu cell: 540-357-2558 Office: 540-231-9118 FAX: 540-231-9131
Nov-11-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Fall Armyworm Feeding and Small Grain Regrowth
The following comments were provided by Dr. Wade Thomason, the Virginia Tech Small Grains Specilist. A number of fields have experienced minor to severe armyworm feeding this fall resulting in almost complete defoliation in some cases. Now the question is how much damage has been done and whether or not the small grain crop should be replanted. The growing point for the small grains is below the soil surface at this time (and will be until spring) so the crop can tolerate defoliation without damage to the growing point. When the worm feeding ceases, these plants should begin to regrow so replanting should not be necessary. The only case that would be different would be if the worms fed on the same plants again and again, which could ultimately use up the plant root reserves. Finally the tillers we produce in the fall are very important to grain yield and how many tillers we get depends a lot on how many heat units the crop is exposed to. A clipped plant that begins to regrow tomorrow stands to benefit from better fall conditions (warmer temperatures) than a replant situation which would likely take 10 days to emerge.
Oct-27-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Late season fall armyworm outbreak
I started getting calls and visits yesterday from homeowners and growers with complaints about worm infestations. Fall armyworm is the culprit and apparently the problem is severe and widespread. Fall armyworms are spreading into newly planted fields of oats, rye and other fall grass forages, and into newly seeded home lawns. Calls are coming in mainly from Surry and Isle of Wight Counties, but that could be the result of the attention growers and crop advisors are paying to fields in those areas. One common denominator seems to be that most infested fields are adjacent to pasture or hay fields. Apparently, the worms have been developing in those fields and are now on-the-move into fields with tender newly emerge leaf shoots. Based on the number of reports, I suspect this problem is even more widespread. Emerging wheat and barley fields are certainly also at risk. Fall armyworm has two strains and I suspect this is the grass strain. I also suspect that this widespread infestation is the result of a huge migratory flight from the southanother in a long line of caterpillar invasions that started with early corn earworm problems back in July. This late season fall armyworm invasion is certainly an unusual problem. I have never seen anything like this in the 22 years I have been working in this area. Rod Youngman on main campus (he works with insect pests of turf and forages) advised that any of the pyrethroids labeled for forages or small grains should provide good control if applied at the high rate, but should be applied NOW. He believes that seedlings are the most at risk and should be treated ASAP. Fall armyworms are surface plant feeders, so they are pretty vulnerable to pesticides. We also believe that fields grazed off by these worms should spring back once they have cycled out. Their life cycle should put them into to the pupal stage in another week or less. And of course, a good hard frost would take-em-out.
Sep-24-2010
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Spider mite infestations are rampant in many Virginia peanut fields
Its September 24 and we hit 98 degrees yesterday and today here at the research station, and still no rain. A hot, dry wind is blowing across the fields and for all its worth, it feels like Arizona, not Virginia. Populations of spider mites which thrive in this kind of environment are exploding in peanut fields across the region. Populations are so large that they are forming pencil eraser sized balls of solid mites on the tips of the upper branches of the peanut plants. Their feeding has extracted the last bit of moisture, what little was left, from already struggling plants. The ONLY solution is to DIG THOSE PEANUTS. We are very close to the normal peanut digging window for Virginia and with the dry conditions, there is no advantage to waiting. In normal years with normal soil moisture, we encourage growers to wait as long as possible to begin digging. By waiting, you allow nuts to gain more meat content which improves the grade and value. Not so this year. In the near total absence of soil moisture, peanuts have essentially stopped maturing. What you have is it and you might as well dig. Some are waiting to dig until they get some moisture which will improve digging conditions. Fields with heavier natured tight soils will be almost impossible to dig efficiently unless it rains. But I still do not recommend treating for mites. Their feeding has not compromised vine strength, which is the biggest concern late in the season. Where late season plant diseases can cause vines to deteriorate which causes them to shed pods during the digging process, spider mite feeding is not having the same effect. Even in fields with the heaviest infestations, vine strength has not been compromised. My advice, just dig them as soon as you can. But be prepared, after the vines are inverted, mites will move to the exposed tap roots. It will look bad, but it is of no economic importance.
Sep-24-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Brown marmorated stink bugs found in more soybean fields
We have now documented brown marmorated stink bugs in soybean fields in at least 15 counties in Virginia. My guess is that if we had more time to look, we would find them in most of the others. The numbers are still low, 1 to 4/15 sweeps, and fields are in senescence, so there is no economic threat. Prior to this year, we had not found them in soybean fields. The bigger question in my mind has to do with next season. Is this low number going to increase significantly next year? I think the probability is high given the incredibly huge populations that are aggregating on and in homes and structures, trees and shrubs over most of the northern, western, and central parts of the state. Will these huge overwintering populations move into gardens and crops next spring? Based what has been reported from other areas, it appears that the answer is yes. One area of the state that has escaped these large overwintering aggregations is the coastal plain. Although we have found a few in crops and in black light traps, I have not seen or gotten complaint calls about large aggregations from homeowners from this region of the state. If the numbers do build in this area, will cotton become the next victim? Other native stink bugs species are highly attracted to cotton bolls and are capable of doing extensive damage. Will brown marmorated stink bugs join this complex? Time will tell and we will be monitoring closely next season.
Sep-23-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for week ending 23 Sep 2010
Average nightly captures of corn earworm moths were low this week. Most of our trap operators are turning off their traps and storing them until next season. The average number of moths caught per night were as follows: Petersburg (10); Southampton (4); Warsaw (21).
Sep-17-2010
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Spider mite infestations picking up in peanut fields
It is not surprising that we are getting reports of spider mite build-ups in peanut fields. There are areas that have been fighting this dry weather pest for several weeks. These newer outbreaks are particularly bothersome as they are coming so close to the end of the season. D. Rick Brandenburg (NCSU) and I have done a lot of work on how to achieve the best control of spider mites in peanuts. There are several limiting factors, not the least of which is the limited number of products registered for spider mite control in peanut. There are only three products currently labeled, Danitol, Brigade and Comite. For reasons that must have to do with marketing, Comite has not been readily available to Virginia growers for the last 3 or 4 years. That leaves Danitol and Brigade (= Capture) which are both pyrethroids. These products if applied with high spray volume (15 + gpa) will provide good knockdown of adult and immature mites. But, neither kills the eggs so if applications are made to fields where there are a lot of eggs, these hatch in 2 or 3 days and the infestation begins again. Our work showed that the only way to make these products work well was to make two sequential applications about 5 to 7 days apart. The first application knocks down the adults and immatures, and the second gets the new hatchlings, thus breaking the cycle. But, this late in the season when digging will begin soon, we are recommending that if mites are doing a lot of damage and need to be controlled, make a single application using the highest labeled rate, knock them back, and hope for the best.
Sep-17-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Soybean loopers finally beginning to phase out
Although there are still soybean loopers in a lot of fields, the numbers are declining. The larger worms are going into pupation and, thankfully, no new eggs are being deposited. For example, I visited several fields where last week the numbers were in the 15 to 20/15 sweep range and found only 2 or 3 larger worms remaining. Also, most of these fields were much closer to being mature enough to be in the safe zone. I am still getting a few calls and am referring them to last weeks advisory note. One nice feature of our advisory is that it archives notes. To see last weeks note that provides guidelines for determining the need for late season looper treatment, go to www.sripmc.org/virginia and scroll down to the Sept. 9 soybean looper note.
Sep-17-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Brown marmorated stink bug found on the Eastern Shore of Virginia
The brown marmorated stink bug was found last week on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Nymphs of this exotic pest were feeding on yellow squash in our research plots in Painter, VA. As far as I know, this is the first documented occurrence of this pest on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Based on reports from New Jersey, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and western counties of Virginia, this insect can be quite damaging to numerous crops, and population densities can build up to extreme levels. Crops that can be particularly hard hit include tree fruit, peppers, tomatoes, sweet corn, and from what I saw, cucurbits as well. In the fall, this stink bug will also aggregate on and in building structures similar to the Asian multicolored lady beetle. Click more to view an image of this pest. [More]
Sep-16-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for week ending Sep 16, 2010
In general, corn earworm moth catches were lower than those of the last several weeks. The average number caught per night were as follows: Petersburg (38); Prince George-Wells (2); Prince George-Lipchak (9); Southampton (43); Suffolk (26); Northumberland (9); Warsaw (22). Please see the attachment for more details. [More]
Sep-09-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Loopers keep coming--when will fields be safe from defoliation
Soybean looper calls are pouring in from all over the eastern half of the state. It is adding insult to injuryhaving to treat fields for the second, third, or even a fourth time in the most extreme cases and on top of that, many fields are so drought stressed they are struggling to stay alive. When helping growers make the decision on whether to treat a field for loopers we have to take the time to consider several components that influence the decision: the maturity of the crop, the health of the leaf canopy, and the number of loopers present. Lets take them one at the time. In terms of crop susceptibility, after some long discussions with soybean agronomists (David Holshouser at VT and Jim Dumphy at NCSU), we came up with a rule-of-thumb as to when fields are safe, that is, worms can be left untreated with no fear of lost yields. We suggest that fields will need to be protected as long as the pods are still green and until the lower leaves are just beginning to yellow. This should correspond, more or less, with the R6.5 stage (10 days after R6.0 = full green seed). If leaves are beginning to yellow up the stem, not from drought but from the maturity process, and there are any pods on the plant that are beginning to yellow, the field is safe, no need to treat. Next we have to determine the health of the leaf canopy, robust, average, or thin. Each can tolerate different amounts of leaf loss before reducing yield potential. Robust fields (mid chest or higher) can tolerate a lot of feeding. Average fields (upper thigh to mid chest) can tolerate normal amounts of feeding. Thin canopy fields (mid thigh or below) cannot tolerate additional leaf loss. Also in this canopy assessment, we need to take a stab at estimating the current percent defoliation. This is not an exact measure, but your best estimate looking over the entire canopy top to bottom. The eyes tend to focus on those badly defoliated top leaves. Look beyond those and try to come up with an overall average. One thing we (and others) have noticed about soybean loopers is that their feeding is often in mid-canopy, not at the top like most other defoliators. All the more reason to inspect the entire canopy. Finally, how many loopers are present? There is not a single threshold because of all the factors we have just discussed, but a very general rule of thumb is that 15-20 or greater/15 sweeps constitutes a potential threat, depending on the maturity and canopy health. Thresholds vary quite a bit from state to state but this one falls pretty well in line with the other states. In considering these components, some fields will be no-brainers. Mature fields (late R6 or older) or fields with robust canopies and just a few loopers (10 or less/15 sweeps) can be left alone. On the other end of the spectrum, early R6 stage or younger fields with stressed, thin canopies and 15-20 or more loopers/15 sweeps need to be treated. This week in Virginia, there are a lot of fields in the grey zone (plants are in the mid to late R5 to early R6 stage, the canopy is average, the looper number is in the 12-18 range, and defoliation is less than 20%). I tell folks, if they can do this, to take a close look at these fields and make a mental image of the extent of defoliation. Revisit in 2-3 days (no longer) to see if it has greatly increased. If the percent defoliation has increased and loopers are still present at or near the threshold, treat it. If the level of defoliation has not increased much and/or the looper numbers have decreased, dont treat. It all sounds pretty complicated and it isbut taking the time to consider these components should help determine if a field needs to be treatedsome will and some wontand allow growers to protect at risk fields but save money on safe fields. When will this looper flight end and what will stop it? I have been asked. I wish I knew. We need rain, badly, which will move fields to maturity and get us out of this mess.
Sep-09-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for week ending 9 Sep 2010
Nightly black light trap averages for corn earworm moths this week were: Petersburg (94/night); Southampton (43/night); Suffolk (82/night).
Sep-02-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Aphid and brown marmorated stink bug update
A couple of new things to report from our statewide soybean survey: soybean aphid has greatly exceeded the threshold (250 aphids/plant) in at least two fields in Gloucester County. Our scout has been watching this area closely for several weeks as it has been the hot spot in the state. As of this week, the population has jumped. As the beans are still in the R4-R5 growth stage, we are recommending a pyrethroid treatment. Pyrethroids are effective in controlling this aphid species. The scout also brought in samples of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) nymphs collected from soybean fields in three counties, Culpeper, Augusta and Clark. These are in the upper- central and northern Virginia. The counts were low in these fields, only about 1/15 sweeps, which is not alarming, but definitely warrants watching. Reports of huge masses of BMSB are starting to come in from places like Fairfax, VA with bugs massing on trees, especially maples, and vegetables of all kinds.
Sep-02-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm moths still flying in large numbers
Earworm moths are still flying. Trap catches are high in many areas, and windshields are spattered. One fellow commented that the other night coming home from a meeting, he had to stop twice to clean the moth gunk off his windshield. One observation, and I hope this holds, is that in the past this late season moth flight did not result in new worm infestations. A lot of insect behavior is relegated by environmental cues. Days are definitely getting shorter. Is this reduced photoperiod (shorter day length) causing moths not to lay as many eggs? Not sure, but for whatever reason, in my experience it has been rare to see worm infestations initiate in September. We are hearing of many fields with a few earworms, maybe left over from the earlier flight, but none with the huge numbers we had a few weeks ago. Lets hope we are finally seeing the end of this pest, for this season at least.
Sep-02-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Looper infestations over most of the state
Soybean loopers are now being reported in soybean fields across much of the eastern side of the state. In past years they were mostly confined to southeastern counties. This infestation has broken all the records in terms of intensity (as many as 100+/15 sweeps in some fields) and geography (now being reported from Middle Peninsula and Northern Neck counties). This must be due to the persistent hot, dry weather, and the high percentage of fields previously treated with insecticides. Loopers are easy to identify but there is some confusion about their color. Soybean loopers have both a green and a black color phase (see the attached image). We are seeing both color phases in our samples. There may be some cabbage loopers (a completely different species) mixed in, but we have not verified this. There are no exact thresholds for loopers in soybean so treatment should be based on the amount of leaf feeding in relation to the size of the total canopy. But, a very loose rule of thumb could be that 20 or more per 15 sweep net sweeps may constitute a threat. Fewer than that, especially in tall, full canopy fields probably does not constitute a threat. Some fields are getting close to maturity with pods and leaves beginning to yellow. Loopers are not a threat to those fields. Pyrethroids should not be figured into a looper treatment decision. They are less than effective. If stink bugs are present in looper infested fields, I would consider adding Orthene to the looper insecticide. Orthene will provide good control of both green and brown stink bugs where the pyrethroid would miss some of the browns. Oddly, we are seeing more brown stink bugs in some fields than greens, which is opposite of what we are used to seeing. We have initiated 5 different field trials to evaluate the effectiveness of many different insecticides/rates for loopers. Results will be presented at our annual Pre-Harvest Field Tour scheduled for Sept. 14. [More]
Sep-02-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap captures for week ending 2 Sep. 2010
Please see the attached table for current corn earworm moth catches. [More]
Sep-02-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth pyrethroid resistance monitoring update
For the last week of August 2010, about 35% of corn earworm moths survived 24 hours of exposure to 5 micrograms of cypermethrin (a pyrethroid) in our vial tests. Moths were collected from pheromone traps in Suffolk, VA. We have evaluated 2,598 vials so far this season. Please see the attached line graph to see results for the entire season. [More]
Sep-02-2010
Soybean (Disease)
From Ames Herbert
Soybean Rust Update
The following update was provided by Drs. Pat Phipps and Darcy Telenko at the Virginia Tech Tidewater Ag Research and Extension Center (Suffolk, VA). Most full season (May planted) soybeans (group IV and V) are at or approaching R6 (full seed). Group III soybean are beginning to yellow and drop leaves. Therefore, most of our full-season crop should suffer no yield loss from soybean rust. Double-crop soybean are just entering R5 (beginning seed); therefore, this crop will need to be protected for approximately 2 more weeks. In drought-stricken areas, recent rainfall has allowed addition flowering and pod set at the top of the plant. In the most severely drought-stressed areas of Virginia, soybean are one to two stages behind. Such fields will need protection for another 2 weeks. Observation and Outlook - Disease Samples of leaflets from sentinel plots at the Tidewater AREC in Suffolk have been examined this week and no soybean rust (SBR) was found. The risk of SBR reaching Virginia is likely to remain low as long as high temperatures continue to reach into the 90's.
Aug-27-2010
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Tour Announcement--Tidewater AREC Late-Season Field Crops Tour--Sept. 14, 2010 @ 2 pm
We will be hosting the 2010 Late-Season Field Crops Tour at the Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center on Tuesday, September 14, 2010. Registration begins at 1:30 pm at the RESEARCH FARM (1045 Hare Road, Suffolk, VA); the tour will start at 2:00 pm. Pre-registration is required for the tour/dinner (please see the attachment for more details on pre-registration procedures and the planned topics). If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event. [More]
Aug-26-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Eastern Shore Insect Pest Activity for Week ending Aug 26
Click More to view the insect trap counts for various locations on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Current counts as well as those from previous weeks are included. In summary corn earworm moth activity remains high in Eastville and Melf according to pheromone trap catches of approximately 50 moths per week. Beet armyworm moth activity is also peaking especially in Eastville. Concomitant to this moth activity, we have been experiencing these pest larvae in multiple crops including soybeans, green beans, peppers, and tomatoes. Growers and crop consultants should still carefully monitor crops for these pests even if they have been sprayed previously. [More]
Aug-26-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Eastern Shore Insect Pest Activity for Week ending Aug 26
Click More to view the insect trap counts for various locations on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Current counts as well as those from previous weeks are included. In summary corn earworm moth activity remains high in Eastville and Melf according to pheromone trap catches of approximately 50 moths per week. Beet armyworm moth activity is also peaking especially in Eastville. Concomitant to this moth activity, we have been experiencing these pest larvae in multiple crops including soybeans, green beans, peppers, and tomatoes. Growers and crop consultants should still carefully monitor crops for these pests even if they have been sprayed previously. [More]
Aug-26-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworms, loopers, green cloverworms and more in soybeans
Although the corn earworm flight is still strong, we are not hearing of many fields with high numbers of worms. However, we are hearing of a lot of fields with pod-stage thresholds and many are being re-sprayed. Several folks have reported seeing newly hatched small worms but are waiting a few days before spraying to see how things develop. Holding off a few more days may mean the difference in having to treat a third time. There are a lot of fields that seem to be holding with no new earworms developing, especially the early planted fields. More infestations are being reported in later-planted double crop fields. This is a typical pattern as the pods in early planted fields are getting to the point where they are no longer attractive or vulnerable. Maybe this second infestation will not be as bad as we expected, but we have another week or two before we will know. Our advice is to keep checking fields at least every 5 days or so, until fields reach the R7 growth stage. As a side note, our pyrethroid testing of adult corn earworms is showing a gradual increase in the level of survivorship, now averaging over 40% for this past week (see the attached figure). Better consider one of the non-pyrethroid options. We are finding (and hearing about) more soybean loopers. The most we have encountered is about 15 to 20 per 15 sweeps, but even at those numbers, the level of defoliation is not bad or to the point where fields need protection. This may get worse, or may not, depending on a lot of factors. One of the oddest situations is the extremely large numbers of green cloverworms that are being reported in some areas. Folks are finding 30-40 and more per 15 sweeps and they are definitely working on the foliage. We always see cloverworms in soybean fields but never at these high levels. They are having to be controlled in fields with limited growth (due to slow growth during the hot dry weather). Reports from Maryland are saying that brown marmorated stink bugs are inundating soybean fields in western and central Maryland. We have known about this pest for several years. It is a native of China, was first reported in Virginia in 2005 (one specimen) and has gradually increased in number. It has become established in Virginia and is now causing problems in vegetable a fruit crops. Soybean is one of its many host crops in China and as we feared, it is now moving into that crop. We have found a few in Virginia soybean fields, about 1 per 15 sweeps in a couple of fields. We do not know much about damage potential or control options but a lot of research is underway. [More]
Aug-26-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for week ending 26 August
Mean nightly corn earworm moth captures for 20-26 August 2010 were as follows: Petersburg (34), Prince George-Wells (10), Prince George-Lipchak (50), Southampton (68), Suffolk (18), Sussex (18), Essex (5), Northumberland (16), Richmond County (28). Please see the attached table for more information. [More]
Aug-26-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Sean Malone
An update of the soybean aphid and brown marmorated stink bug monitoring program
For August 16-19, Ed Seymore reported that surveyed fields in the following counties had little to no soybean aphids, with the exception of Gloucester in the Wood's X area: Augusta (0), Albemarle (0), Buckingham (0), Caroline (1-5), Charles City (0), Clark (1-5), Culpeper/Fauquier (6-39) aphids/plant), Gloucester (150-249), Goochland (0), Henrico (0), King and Queen (0), King William (0), Lancaster (0), Mathews (1-5), Middlesex (0), Rockingham (0), and Shenandoah (0). The economic threshold for soybean aphid is 250 aphids/plant. Under ideal conditions, soybean aphid populations can double every 2 days. Very low numbers (about 1 per 15 sweeps) of brown marmorated stink bugs were detected in one soybean field in central Culpeper County.
Aug-23-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Monday, August 23- A corn earworm alert
A very large movement of corn earworm moths is taking place throughout much of eastern Virginia. I did some driving throughout several counties this past Sunday night and there were so many moths flying it felt like being in a snow flurry. Soybean and peanut fields are at very high risk to re-infestation of worms. Most fields were treated 2 weeks or more ago and are very susceptible to re-infestation. Calls have already started coming in with growers and crop advisors seeing this re-infestation. Here are several observations and recommendations. First, I think this fight is comprised mostly of corn earworm (less possibility of tobacco budworm), and I think they are coming out of our own peanut and soybean fields. Because of this, they may represent survivors from previous sprays so there could be even higher percentages with some level of pyrethroid resistance. My advice is to try to hold off on making applications for at least a 2 or 3 more days. By waiting, the moths will lay more eggs and more small larvae will hatch. Going too early in this flight cycle may mean yet another treatment. Of course, waiting too long will allow worms to begin feeding on pods. Worm must be 3/8 inch long or longer before they can feed on pods, and remember, we base our thresholds on these sizes-not the tiny worms. When you pull the trigger, go with idea that the best kill will be achieved having a non-pyrethroid in the mix. We have gone over those options several times. The newest option added to that list is Belt by Bayer CropScience. Belt is performing very well in our field trials at 3 oz/acre. The label goes from 2-3 oz. The 2 oz rate may be enough but we have not tested it. Belt is also showing some indication that it is providing good residual activity. Consero is also new and could present another good tank mix option. Consero is a co-pack of spinosad and gamma-cyhalothrin and is labeled at 2-3 oz/acre. Other non-pyrethroid standards are Larvin, Steward, Tracer and Orthene (which should only be used if tank-mixed with a pyrethroid).
Aug-19-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Worms Continue to be a Threat on the Eastern Shore
Heavy worm pressure is still being seen across the Eastern Shore. One field of sweet corn was assayed for baythroid resistant corn ear worms after showing 90% damage. This was after one spraying of Coragen followed by six additional treatments of baythroid. The results of the bioassay showed none of the worms were baythroid resistant. Only severe worm pressure would seem to be the cause. Corn ear worm and beet armyworm flights remain high especially in the Birdsnest/Machipongo area. Beet armyworms can also be found frequenting pigweed and lambsquarter around the edges of fields. Young corn on the station has been heavily damaged by fall armyworms and a few adults have appeared in the trap on station possibly presaging another flight of these destructive pests. [More]
Aug-19-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap catches for week ending 19 Aug 2010
Seven of nine reporting locations had their highest 2010 captures of corn earworm moths this week (13-19 August). Please see the attached table for more details. [More]
Aug-19-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
A second corn earworm-budworm moth flight and pyrethroid resistance, a perfect storm
As predicted, we are in the midst of a second flurry of corn earworm and tobacco budworm moth activity. Some black light traps are catching even higher numbers than during the first flight. Moths are flushing from peanut, cotton and soybean fields. Each crop is presenting a different scenario in terms of risk to infestation and potential crop damage. I can almost guarantee that peanut and soybean fields will be re-infested with worms, and there is a very good possibility that the infestation will be a mix of both species. PEANUTS almost never suffer economically from worm feeding, but growers will likely not tolerate the worms and tank mix some insecticide with a planned fungicide application. SOYBEANS are a different story. This next influx of worms will coincide with pod development and fill. Many fields that have been drought stressed are getting some rain and plants are reflowering which makes them highly attractive to moths. I think pod thresholds will be met or exceeded in many fields and many will need to be re-sprayed. Most of these fields have already been treated, but in my opinion, and in the opinion of other soybean entomologists, no product offers more than about 7 days residual activity so any field treated more than 7 days ago will be completely vulnerable to worms. Another piece of the puzzle is the continued high pyrethroid resistance levels of corn earworm. As of this week, we have tested 1,903 moths and survivorship has climbed back to over 40% (see the attached figure). One sample this week reached 56%. Is this resistance level increasing because many of these moths are from the worms that escaped the earlier pyrethroid sprays? Seems logical. The best control will need to incorporate a non-pyrethroid (Larvin, Lannate, Steward, Tracer, Belt). Another tank mix that seems to be working well where ever it is being used (the Delta states, Tennessee, North Carolina) is to add 6 oz of Orthene to a full pyrethroid rate. COTTON may be the least attractive and least susceptible to this next influx of worms. The hot, dry weather has pushed cotton to cutout with many bolls already too tough to be damaged by worms. Much of the crop will be ready for defoliation within the next 3 weeks or so. Without some top growth of new tender flowers, squares or small bolls, young worms will not be able to establish. And even if this top growth does become infested, it represents a very small proportion of the total yield, which makes controlling worms (the cost) a tough decision. [More]
Aug-18-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Bayer Agrees to Terminate All Uses of Temik insecticide (Aldicarb)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Bayer CropScience, the manufacturer, have reached an agreement to end use of the pesticide aldicarb in the United States. A new risk assessment conducted by EPA based on recently submitted toxicity data indicates that aldicarb, an N-methyl carbamate insecticide, no longer meets the agencys rigorous food safety standards and may pose unacceptable dietary risks, especially to infants and young children. To address the most significant risks, Bayer has agreed first to end aldicarb use on citrus and potatoes and will adopt risk mitigation measures for other uses to protect groundwater resources. New measures to protect shallow drinking water wells in vulnerable areas of the southeastern U.S. coastal plain and lower application rates will be immediately added to product labels for use on cotton, soybeans, and peanuts. The company will voluntarily phase out production of aldicarb by December 31, 2014. All remaining aldicarb uses will end no later than August 2018. Additionally, EPA plans to revoke the tolerances (legal pesticide residues allowed in food) associated with these commodities. EPA did this to ensure we have the safest food supply possible. Based upon current toxicological studies, aldicarb at levels higher than those typically found in food has the potential to cause various effects such as sweating, nausea, dizziness and blurred vision, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Aldicarb is registered for use as a systemic insecticide and nematicide on agricultural crops, and is formulated and marketed solely as a granular pesticide under the trade name Temik. During the phase-out, the pesticide will continue to be registered for use on cotton, dry beans, peanuts, soybeans, sugar beets, and sweet potatoes. Aldicarb products are not intended for sale to homeowners or for use in residential settings. A restricted use pesticide, aldicarb may be applied only by trained, certified pesticide applicators. The memorandum of agreement and the agencys updated dietary risk assessment and supporting materials will be available in the aldicarb reregistration docket, EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0163, and in the aldicarb Special Review docket, EPA-HQ-OPP-2006-0197, at regulations.gov. The U.S. has a safe and abundant food supply, and children and others should continue to eat a variety of foods, as recommended by the federal government and nutritional experts. More information: http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/factsheets/aldicarb_fs.html
Aug-18-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Update on the statewide soybean aphid and brown marmorated stink bug survey
With financial support from the Virginia Soybean Board and federal funding for our state IPM program, our soybean scout Ed Seymore has begun to monitor about 30 soybean fields for soybean aphid and a new invasive pest species, the brown marmorated stink bug. From Aug. 2 to mid-August 2010, surveyed fields in the following counties had little to no soybean aphids: Augusta (0), Albemarle (0), Buckingham (0), Caroline (0), Charles City (0), Clark (0), Culpeper/Fauquier (1-5 aphids/plant), Gloucester (0), Goochland (0), Henrico (0), King and Queen (0), King William (0), Lancaster (0), Mathews (0), Middlesex (0), Orange (6-39 aphids/plant), Rockingham (0), and Shenandoah (0). The economic threshold for soybean aphid is 250 aphids/plant so these low numbers of aphids do not pose any threat at present. Very low numbers (about 1 per 15 sweeps) of brown marmorated stink bugs were detected in two soybean fields in central Culpeper County. Researchers are still trying to determine the extent and nature of brown marmorated stink bug feeding injury to soybean, but it will likely pose a risk if populations become established.
Aug-18-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Soybean looper is a potential late-season problem for soybeans
Soybean looper is a common pest of our soybean crop and can be found in small numbers in most fields, most years. But it is very uncommon to have large infestations. The moths have to migrate into Virginia from the south so when we do have big problems, they occur late in the season. Our last bad soybean looper year was 2005. In 2005, they moved into several soybean fields in mid-September. Being unfamiliar with the pest, growers were not looking for them and not sampling fields. In a few cases, fields were totally destroyed with loopers eating all the leaves leaving only leaf veins, stems and stalks (see the attached images, insecticide protected vs. unprotected soybean field). This insect is capable of doing a lot of feeding in a short period of time. This is why I try to correct folks when they call green cloverworms--loopers. Although green cloverworms do loop or inch when they crawl, they are distinctly different from soybean loopers both in appearance and in the rate they feed. Both are light green with white longitudinal strips down the tops of their backs and sides. The differences are that green cloverworms are of equal girth from head to tail, have 3 pairs of abdominal prolegs, and wiggle vigorously if you put one in the palm of your hand (see the attached images). Loopers tend to be smaller at the head end and fatter towards the tail end, have only 2 pairs of abdominal prolegs, and they dont thrash around in your hand. And most importantly, loppers eat much more, worm-for-worm, compared with cloverworms. A pattern that played out in 2005 was that all the fields hit hardest by soybean looper had been previously treated with a pyrethroid. The pyrethroids had reduced the beneficial population so when the invading moths laid their eggs, most survived. Large numbers of soybean looper moths have now been spotted in several fields in North Carolina. Almost all of our soybean fields have been treated with a pyrethroid. We could be set up for a huge problem. Loopers are also fairly hard to control with pyrethroids which provide only about 50% control, at best. Products with pyrethroid/neonicotinoid mixes will not help. Field trials in 2005 showed that only Lannate, Larvin, Steward and Tracer provided acceptable levels of control. Belt and Intrepid could likely be added to that list, but we have not evaluated those. Bottom line, stay alert to these late season pests and keep a watch on your soybeans, especially any that have been treated with a pyrethroid. [More]
Aug-13-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Belt insecticide just labeled for use on soybeans and other legume crops
Belt SC (flubendiamide) has just received EPA approval for use in soybean and legume vegetables (including edible-podded and succulent shelled pea and bean, dried shelled pea and bean and foliage of legume vegetables). For controlling worm pests in soybean, the rate will be 2 to 3 oz/acre, 10 gpa minimum by ground, with a 14 day pre-harvest interval. Belt provides a unique mode of action against lepidoteran larvae and will fit well as another non-pyrethroid option (in addition to Steward, Tracer and Larvin) in soybean. We have tested Belt at the 3 oz rate in four soybean field trials since 2008 and found that it works well against corn earworm.
Aug-12-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Worm Pressure Increasing on the Eastern Shore
Corn earworm still seems to be the pest to watch right now. Numbers seem to be high to the south of us and increasing on the Shore. Continue to monitor fields for theshold numbers before spraying as worm pressure is heavy in some locations and low in others. Fall army worm pressure on the station seems to be dropping, although some small worms were seen, possibly indicating the beginning of a second generation. Beet army worm flights continue to be high in the traps, but few worms have been seen in the field. Trap numbers seem to be skewed possibly due high thunderstorm activity during the evenings keeping flight counts low. See attached [More]
Aug-12-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Resistance monitoring of corn earworm moths
Dr. Herbert mentioned in his 29 July 2010 advisory that we are continuing to monitor for pyrethroid resistance in corn earworm. We have now tested over 1,500 moths and are averaging 28% survival in the 5 ug cypermethrin vials (click 'More' to see the data). This is now the third consecutive year that local corn earworm populations are demonstrating high levels of pyrethroid resistance. As Dr. Herbert said in his advisory, proceed with caution and consider non-pyrethroids especially in peanut or soybean fields with a lot of worms. [More]
Aug-12-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for week ending 12 August 2010
In general, nightly black light trap captures of corn earworm moths remained high this week. Please see the attached pdf for more details. [More]
Aug-12-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Budworm is definitely in the mix
We have confirmed that tobacco budworm is in both soybean and peanut fields. We have attached a table with the percentages of each, corn earworm (CEW)/tobacco budworm (TBW), from 8 fields in Virginia and northeast North Carolina. Note that the IDs were based on the differences in jaw construction in the two species (mandibular identification) which means the jaws of each worm (240 total) had to be dissected and inspected under high magnification. Most collections came from fields that had been recently treated by the grower with either Baythroid XL or Karate Z. We also included the day post treatment that the worms were collected. With the exception of collections from two untreated fields, these worms represent pyrethroid escapes. Unfortunately, we do not have pre-treatment samples so do not know what the species ratio was prior to application. Escapes ranged from 4 to 86% TBW. Were these selected for by the pyrethroid sprays, as TBW is known to be harder to kill with pyrethroids? That would be our best guess. In the future, knowing the ratio of CEW/TBW could be critical to achieving good control by guiding the insecticide choice. If TBWs are known to be in the mix, it might tip the scale in favor of using the more effective, but more costly, non-pyrethroids. In soybeans, that means Steward, Larvin, or Tracer. In peanuts, Steward or Tracer. Soon there may be some new options. Our field plot research is showing a lot of promise for Bayer CropSciences Belt insecticide, Duponts Coragen insecticide, and a few others. When will they be available and what will they cost? Good questions. [More]
Aug-12-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Soybean still being harassed by corn earworm
To date, this has been one for the records in terms of corn earworm pressure in soybeans. Many of our fields have been treated, although most are still in the flowering/late flowering stage. We do not have thresholds for flowering beans but know that high numbers of worms can do too much damage by eating all the flowers which can result in delayed maturity. Whats next for these fields? Will earworms recycle to present another threat to podding fields? My guess is, yes, at least some percentage of fields may need to be retreated. The decision to retreat should be made based not on rumor, seeing spray rigs running in the neighbors field, or conversations at the diner, but based on knowledge that thresholds have been met. Growers cannot afford to make unnecessary sprays, especially with low yield potential and having already paid for one application. And, if a pyrethroid was used the first time we would strongly recommend that these second applications be non-pyrethroids. If you have treated with Karate, Baythroid, Endigo, Birgade, Bifenthrin, Tombstone, Sniper, Mustang Max, Hero, Proaxis, or Leverageyou have treated with a pyrethroid. In our field trials we are having good success controlling worms with relatively low rates of these non-pyrethroids (e.g., Steward at 4.6 oz and Larvin at 10 oz). But even at these rates, the cost is more than the pyrethroids.
Aug-05-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect pest activity in soybeans on the Eastern Shore
Many full-season soybean crops on the Eastern Shore of Virginia were sprayed for insect pests this week. In many cases, these sprays were needed as pest numbers of spider mites, corn earworms, green cloverworms and other caterpillar pests were high. In the fields that I insected, I saw a lot of green cloverworm, corn earworm, yellowstriped armyworm, and some beet armyworms. I did not see soybean loopers, which often are hard to kill. Beet armyworms have also shown resistance to pyrethroids in past trials on the Eastern Shore. A number of different insecticides were applied. Some growers sprayed Steward to combat the complex of caterpillars; whereas some others sprayed Orthene and a pyrethroid such as Warrior to combat the mix of pests. Other growers sprayed a generic Lorsban 4E, which provided efficacy against the spider mites as well as the caterpillar pests including beet armyworms. Let's hope our growers do not have to spray again, as these sprays were applied early in the crop, and we've still probably yet to see the major flight of corn earworms that attack the pods.
Aug-05-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Eastern Shore insect trap catches for Week ending Aug 6
Click More to receive the insect trap catches for the Eastern shore of Virginia for the week ending August 6. In summary, we are seeing an increase in trap catch of corn earworm and beet armyworm moths at most locations. Green stink bug catch also increased in black light traps. [More]
Aug-04-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm outbreaks early and heavy in some fields, not in others
Corn earworm has moved into soybean fields across much of Virginia. This is earlier than normal and most are faced with the decision to treat (or nor) flowering stage beans. Infestation levels vary a lot from field to field from almost no worms in lush canopy fields, to drought stressed open canopy fields with as many as 25+ per 15 sweeps. Although we have decent thresholds for foliage feeding and pod feeding, there is little guidance as to the impact of flower feeding by corn earworms. Several years ago researchers in North Carolina (Eckel et al. 1992) concluded that flower feeding contributed to yield reductions by delaying pod set, but no exact thresholds were developed. Without good guidelines as to how many can be tolerated, we are suggesting that low to moderate numbers (6 or less medium plus large worms/15 sweeps) could be safe, especially if beans are growing well with good soil moisture. More than that may represent a threat. Again, just a grab. We are also getting a lot of calls from folks finding live worms after pyrethroid sprays, in cotton, peanut and soybean fields. Most are using either Karate Z or Baythroid XL and the misses are about equal among the products. The most obvious cases are where there were very high numbers of worms so the survivors are still quite noticeable. We visited one field that had been sprayed 24 hours earlier and found an average of about 4 to 8 worms/15 sweeps. Since it was still not forming pods, I suggested that it not be retreated, yet. Of course, any field that has been treated will be very susceptible to any subsequent infestations, as beneficial insects would have been mostly eliminated so be sure to begin re-scouting 7 days after the last application. If another treatment is needed, strongly consider a non-pyrethroid. We are also seeing a mix of worm species including yellow striped armyworms, green cloverworms, and maybe some tobacco budworms. Corn earworm is still the primary species, so I would direct the spray program to those.
Aug-04-2010
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Bollworm thresholds in conventional cotton
We are finding threshold levels of bollworms (eggs and live worms) in conventional cotton (no Bollgard2 or Widestrike). Those fields should be managed using the old system (treat at egg threshold and retreat in 5-7 days). The best approach for Bollgard2 and Widestrike cotton is the treat one time 5-7 days after the egg threshold, which targets any escaped worms. Not treating Bollgard2 or Widestrike cotton could be a mistake. For the past 2 years, we have seen as much as 2-3% boll damage in some Bollgard2 varieties, and as much as 10% damage in one Phytogen variety. A single pyrethroid application (highest labeled rate) cleaned up the problem. One cautionary note, we have gotten reports of worms escaping pyrethroid treatments in cotton.
Aug-02-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
EPA Federal Register on Cancellation of Pencap-M insecticide
Pesticide Federal Register Items for the Week of July 12-16, 2010 > >Methyl Parathion: Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide >Registrations Date of publication: July 16, 2010 >Citation: Volume 75, Number 136, Page 41482-41483 >http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2010/2010-17404.htm >Purpose: This notice announces EPA's order for the cancellations, >voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted by the Agency, of >products containing methyl parathion, pursuant to section 6(f)(1) of >the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as >amended. This cancellation order follows an April 28, 2010 Federal >Register Notice of Receipt of Requests from the registrants listed in >Table 2 of Unit II. to voluntarily cancel all these product >registrations. These are the last products containing this pesticide >registered for use in the United States. In the April 28, 2010 notice, >EPA indicated that it would issue an order implementing the >cancellations, unless the Agency received substantive comments within >the 30 day comment period that would merit its further review of these >requests, or unless the registrants withdrew their requests. The >Agency received comments on the notice but none merited its further >review of the requests. Further, the registrants did not withdraw >their requests. Accordingly, EPA hereby issues in this notice a >cancellation order granting the requested cancellations. Any >distribution, sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation >order is permitted only in accordance with the terms of this order, >including any existing stocks provisions. >Chemical(s): Methyl Parathion** >Comments: EPA has established a docket for this action under docket >identification number EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0332. The cancellations are >effective July 16, 2010. >Contact: Kelly Ballard, Pesticide Re-evaluation Division (7508P), >Office of Pesticide Programs, telephone number: (703) 305-8126; fax >number: (703) 305-5290; e-mail address: ballard.kelly@epa.gov. > > >Methyl Parathion; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of >Availability Date of publication: July 16, 2010 >Citation: Volume 75, Number 136, Page 41484-41485 >http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2010/2010-17403.htm >Purpose: This notice announces the availability of EPA's proposed >registration review decision for the pesticide methyl parathion and >opens a public comment period on the proposed decision. >Registration review is EPA's periodic review of pesticide registrations >to ensure that each pesticide continues to satisfy the statutory >standard for registration, that is, that the pesticide can perform its >intended function without unreasonable adverse effects on human health >or the environment. Through this program, EPA is ensuring that each >pesticide's registration is based on current scientific and other >knowledge, including its effects on human health and the environment. >Chemical(s): Methyl Parathion >Comments: Submit your comments, identified by docket identification >number EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0332. Comments must be received on or before >September 14, 2010. >Contact: Kelly Ballard, Chemical Review Manager, Pesticide >Re-evaluation Division (7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, telephone >number: (703) 305-8126; fax number: (703) 305-5290; e-mail address: >ballard.kelly@epa.gov. > >Mailing address for all listed staff: Office of Pesticide Programs, >Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, >Washington, DC 20460
Jul-30-2010
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Reminder to visit the Virginia Ag Pest Advisory (http://www.sripmc.org/Virginia/) for important updates on the corn earworm survey, resistance monitoring, and insect activity
This is an update concerning the automatically generated email that notifies people of new posts to the Virginia Ag Pest Advisory. Although our "Friday morning" email did not work on July 30, 2010, it seems that our "Emergency Notification" option is working. We wish to thank Dr. Yulu Xia for his generous assistance working through this glitch. Remember, all advisories are available anytime at http://www.sripmc.org/Virginia/ (you may have to search the archives at the bottom of the website). Please see Dr. Herbert's posts about the results of the corn earworm survey and resistance monitoring, and also Dr. Kuhar and my posts concerning insect activity this week. Thank you.
Jul-29-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Eastern Shore Insect Trap Counts for Week ending July 29
This week the corn ear worm flight seems to have spread throughout both counties with all trap locations showing increased activity. This week also showed a jump in beet armyworm catches at both the Eastville and Painter locations while cornborer activity has shown a significant decrease. Click more to view a spreadsheet of pheromone trap catch and blacklight trap catch from various locations on the Eastern Shore. [More]
Jul-29-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap captures for the week ending 29 July 2010
Black light trap captures of corn earworm moths greatly increased for nearly all of our reporting stations. The lowest nightly average was recorded in Petersburg (4) and our highest included Richmond County (69) and Prince George County (76). Please refer to the attached Table for more nightly averages. [More]
Jul-29-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm survey and predictions
Annually, we conduct a survey to estimate corn earworm infestation levels in field corn in late July. Earworms develop in corn, then move to other crops such as soybean, cotton, and peanut in August. We determined the number of corn earworms found in 50 ears of corn from 5 randomly selected corn fields in each of 24 counties, totaling 5,800 ears and 116 fields sampled. Statewide, 42% of ears were infested with earworms. This is up from 36% in 2009. Regional averages were 12% infested in Northern, 28% in the Northern Neck, 39% in Mid-Eastern, 58% in the Southeast, and 46% on the Eastern Shore. See the attachment with results from each county and many more details. From the survey, it looks like the areas of greatest risk to heavy infestations of earworms are the southeastern cotton/peanut counties, and the Eastern Shore. However, as large as this effort is, it is not a complete picture. We always recommend scouting individual fields to determine exactly what is happening in terms of corn earworm as well as other pests and crop problems. We will continue posting moth catch numbers and other information regarding the 2010 insect pest situation. [More]
Jul-29-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm pyrethroid resistance update
As of July 29, we have tested a total of 768 corn earworm moths in our pyrethroid AVT (adult vial testing) program. Although the percent survivorship is down somewhat from last week, we are still seeing greater than 20% survive (see the attached line graph). Could this mean that field failures are likely? Possibly, especially if worm populations are large. Our goal is to process as many moths as we can and post these weekly updates. We are also responding to calls from crop consultants, advisors and growers. We have one reported case of a less than acceptable level of control in a peanut field. Could some of those surviving worms have been tobacco budworms, which are known to be more difficult to control with pyrethroids? Possibly, but it is almost impossible to distinguish between corn earworm and tobacco budworm without inspecting the moth parts of the worms under magnification in lab. We do know that budworms can be in the mix, up to 30% one year when we did a lot of worm IDs. Bottom line, this is the third consecutive year that local corn earworm populations are demonstrating high levels of pyrethroid resistance. Proceed with caution and consider non-pyrethroids especially in peanut or soybean fields with a lot of worms. [More]
Jul-22-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Eastern Shore Insect Trap Counts for Week Ending July 23
Mr. Kyle Sturgis and Bill Shockley have embarked on a more extensive insect pest trapping effort on the Eastern Shore. Click more to view a spreadsheet of pheromone trap catch and blacklight trap catch from various locations on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. This same spreadsheet will include other locations and will add new catch numbers on a weekly basis. We are getting organized to deliver a more comprehensive picture of the activity of major agricultural pest insects on the Eastern Shore. In summary the spreadsheet shows the first real rise in counts of both corn earworm and European corn borer in the Mappsville and Assawoman areas of the Eastern Shore. Activity in Eastville appears to be low. There have been no catches of either beet armyworm or fall armyworm so far. It is early for those pests, although a fall armyworm infestation in late planted corn was seen in Northampton County this week. [More]
Jul-22-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm captures for the week ending 22 July 2010
As Dr. Herbert mentioned in his advisory, corn earworm moth captures in our network of black light traps are beginning to increase. Reports north of the James River ranged from 0 (Essex Co.) to 7 (Richmond Co./Warsaw) moths per night. In southeast Virginia, reports ranged from <2 (Petersburg) to 10 per night (Southampton Co./Courtland). Please see the attached table (pdf) for more information. [More]
Jul-22-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
New invasive insect pest of soybean
I am paraphrasing an email we received from Jack Bacheler at NC State last week alerting us to a new invasive insect pest of soybeans. The Figure images (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, and Fig. 3) are attached: The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius, is a new invasive pest from south Asia that is currently spreading throughout the southeastern United States (Fig. 1). This insect is a piercing sucking pest (similar feeding as stink bugs) on legumes and was first found on kudzu in Georgia during December 2009. It has since been confirmed on both soybeans and kudzu in both Georgia and SoI am paraphrasing an email we received from Jack Bacheler last week alerting us to a new invasive insect pest of soybeans. The Figure images (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, and Fig. 3) are attached: uth Carolina in 2010. The confirmed distribution is represented in Fig. 2. Research on insecticide management options is being conducted by Dr. Phillip Roberts, University of Georgia, and his colleagues. The University of Georgia researchers and Dr. Jeremy Greene, Clemson University, are monitoring this pest and we need to be vigilant for the appearance of this pest in North Carolina. Many invasive insects are found in extremely high numbers upon initial establishment, which may aid in our detection of this pest (Fig. 3). Current numbers from Georgia in soybeans are reported as close to 10 insects per sweep near field borders, where the distribution of this pest is the highest. Please contact me if you see this insect in your soybean field (Ames Herbert, 757-657-6450, ext 411, Herbert@vt.edu). [More]
Jul-22-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworms are increasing and many appear resistant to pyrethroids
Corn earworm is on the rise. Trap catches started increasing this week, up from near zero last week, and we are seeing moths flying in soybean, peanut and cotton fields. The worst news on corn earworm relates to the resistance monitoring program. As in the past several years, we are testing live-caught male moths in what we call the AVT program (adult vial test). Live moths are placed individually into small glass vials pretreated with a known amount of cypermethrin (the pyrethroid used throughout the south in the AVT program). We check the vials in 24 hours and any live moths are considered to be survivors demonstrating resistance. Although we have only tested 363 moths to date, we found that 48% survived in this weeks sample (see the attached chart). This is the highest level ever recorded in Virginia. Last year we found about 40% survivorship in some later season samples, which was the highest level for the years up to 2009. We will continue posting the AVT results, but all indications are that we may be in for some pyrethroid control issues again this summer. [More]
Jul-22-2010
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton insect update: stink bugs low, bollworm increasing
So far we are not seeing much boll damage from stinkbugs. We think this is due to the overall very hot, dry weather we are experiencing. Week before last I saw 106 degrees on a local bank billboard in my hometown (Franklin, VA), the first time ever according to the old-timers. This week Johnny Parker with Commonwealth Gin reported that he looked at a couple of thousand acres and found only about 3 bolls total with stink bug damage. He says he has never seen stink bug pressure this low. Yesterday he found a hot spot in an irrigated field approaching 10% boll damage with about 15% dirty blooms. The only insect in the field was tarnished plant bug so he assumed they had caused the boll damage (spots with light internal damage). Corn earworm/bollworm is on the rise. Trap catches started increasing this week, up from near zero last week, and we are seeing moths flying in soybean, peanut and cotton fields. Stan Winslow with Tidewater Agronomic, Inc. in North Carolina reported today that they were finding an increasing number of bollworm eggs in cotton. We are recommending that growers not react to eggs, but wait to see how they progress and base any sprays on worm escapes. If worm pressure gets high, we can expect some escapes. For example, last year we found 2-4% boll damage on some Bollgard 2 and Widestrike varieties. But time will tell. We may or may not have to treat depending on how many worms break through the Bt and Widestrike toxins.
Jul-15-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect trap counts on the Eastern Shore for Week Ending July 16
Blacklight trap catch in Painter this week again yielded very little activty from the major moth pest species. Weekly counts were as follows: 0 European corn borer, 0 armyworm moths, 2 corn earworm, 6 hornworm moths (increasing), 42 green stink bugs (increasing), 3 brown stink bugs (decreasing). We are still not seeing the main flight of corn earworm. Spider mites remain an important pest concern particularly in areas that have missed the rain, or commercial tomatoes. An outbreak of fall armyworm in late-planted corn was also reported this week. Coragen insecticide is a new option for fall armyworm control in early whorl stage corn. It has shown very good efficacy, with a long residual, and it is a safe chemical to apply.
Jul-15-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm black light trap captures for the week ending 15 July 2010
Corn earworm moth nightly black light trap captures for 9-15 July 2010 ranged from 0.0 to 0.3 in southeast Virginia and from 0.3 to 0.8 north of the James River.
Jul-12-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
New supplemental label for Belay applied aerially on soybeans, cotton, and potatoes
Attached is a Belay Supplemental label that has been approved by the EPA and is pending state approval. This Supplemental Label allows Belay to be applied aerially in soybeans, cotton, and potatoes. In addition, the aerial use rate is 3 to 6 fl oz/A. This is a higher use rate than the current ground application label (3 to 4 fl oz/A); however, the EPA has approved the change of the use rate for Belay when applied by ground in soybeans and cotton. That Supplemental Label will be out this coming week. [More]
Jul-08-2010
Field Corn (Insect)
From Helene Doughty
Insect pest activity on the Eastern Shore for week ending July 8
Blacklight trap catch in Painter has revelealed very little insect activty this week. We are still not seeing the main flight of corn earworm, which is good news for our growers because we they've had enough to worry about with drought. The hot dry weather has caused some outbreaks of Spider mites in tomatoes and soybeans. Commercial tomato growers are having particular difficulties managing this pest even with some of the best miticide tools on the market for vegetables (Oberon, Portal, Acramite, and Agrimek). I've heard of some tomato fields receiving applications of all of these products on a 5 day rotation and they still have spider mites, particularly in the lower canopy. Some rain could really help.
Jul-08-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Helene Doughty
Introducing - Insect trap counts for Virginia Beach
Click more to find the pheromone trap counts and blacklight trap counts for corn earworm moths, beet armyworm moths and some other pests in Virginia Beach. In 2010 we initiated a monitoring program for these pests at the Hampton Roads AREC and on three commercial farms near Pungo, VA. These data will be posted weekly so that you can monitor the flights of these key insect pests of vegetables and field crops. In summary corn earworm moths have been flying in the Pungo, VA area since June, but we've probably not seen the huge migratory flight that occurs each year around mid July. Beet armyworm moths have yet to appear in traps. [More]
Jul-08-2010
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton insect pest update
Not much is happening in cotton right now in terms of insect pests. The hot, dry weather seems to have things on hold, for the most part. Spider mites are common on a lot of field edges but are not widespread. We are not seeing much evidence of square loss to plant bugs (in untreated fields) and square retention is in the 90% + range. A few stink bugs, mostly brown stink bugs, are beginning to show up and soon we will begin assessing bolls for stink bug damage using our newly released Decision aid for stink bug thresholds in Southeast cotton which presents a dynamic internal stink bug damage percentage threshold (changes as the crop matures) that begins with 50% internal damage in the first week of bloom. We will post more details soon.
Jul-08-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm update
It is too early to say a lot about corn earworm, but year in and year out, this critter causes us a lot of problems. Each year we conduct a large survey of field corn in late July to get a read on the size of the population that could move to soybean, cotton, peanut and other host crops. Although we have not done the survey, some random checks of sweet corn and field corn show from 40% to 90% infested ears. This constitutes a possible threat. Earworms are worse in dry years as fewer are killed by rain (can drown pupae before they mature, can wash eggs from plants, can increase the incidence on fungal worm diseases, etc.). The other shoe to drop is the issue with pyrethroid resistance. In the last two years (2008 and 2009) we found a large increase in the number of moths that survived in our pyrethroid vial testing program (from less than 5-10% survivors prior to 2008, to 20-40% survivors in 2008 and 2009). So far this year we have tested a total of 235 moths from May 27 to the present. The % survivorship has fluctuated, as is normal, starting at 13%, then to 12%, to 7%, to 25% in last weeks sample. Granted these results are from a small number of moths, but all indications are that we may need to address use of pyrethroids again this summer. We will keep posting the information.
Jul-08-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
General crop insect pest overview
Because of this continuing hot, dry weather, we are not seeing a lot of insect activity in cotton, peanuts or soybeans. There are a few exceptions. Grasshoppers are doing some damage to soybeans in certain areas. Spider mites are starting to show up in most crops, but so far, the buildup is pretty gradual. Finally, there is some hope this Saturday for some decent amounts of rainfall for a lot of the area. If we miss that opportunity&& Potato leafhoppers are showing up in peanuts, but again, the buildup is gradual. We are just beginning to get a picture of how the 2010 corn earworm population is developing. We may be in for some problems (see the Corn earworm update), again, if the weather doesnt turn around with more frequent rains. PS, if we could shoot about ½ million deer we would solve a lot of our pest problems, at least for many of our soybean growers.
Jul-08-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Grasshoppers in soybean
Grasshoppers are always worse in dry years. They tend to move from border vegetation or infield weed sources as they dry down (which occurs more readily in dry weather), or from cover crop after herbicide burn down. They will undergo several generationswe find hoppers in all sizes (nymphs and adults) almost any time during the season, especially as we move into late summer/fall. They will eat soybean leaves, but are also capable of feeding on young pods later in the year. Treatment this time of year has to be based on the extent of defoliation. Under normal growing conditions, soybeans are capable of withstanding a lot of defoliation (30-40%) in the vegetative growth stages because they are growing so rapidly constantly putting on new canopy. Of course under these dry conditions, they are standing still, almost. You have to gauge the need for treatment on this tough decision point and it is often a seat-of-the-pants call, as many of them are. If the defoliation is severe and hoppers are abundant, I think you need to consider a treatment. Treating field edges can be effective, especially if hoppers are still moving in from bordering weed sources. If we do not get rain enough to make a decent crop, control efforts and the $ spent will have been wasteda hard call to make If treatments are made, our limited experience showed that products containing chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E at ½ to 1 pt/acre, or Cobalt at 7 to 13 oz/acre) were more effective than pyrethroids. All things considered, I would use the lowest labeled rate. Also, Lorsban 4E is pretty good for controlling twospotted spider mite, which may also be present, or at least a pending threat.
Jul-08-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Black light trap catches of corn earworm moths remain low
The nightly average number of corn earworm moths captured in our black light traps has been low so far for the 2010 season, only about 0.1 per night.
Jul-01-2010
Field Corn (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect pest activity on the Eastern Shore for Week Ending July 2
The blacklight trap counts in Painter were very low this week with virtually no key moth pests caught, except for 1 European corn borer, and 20 brown stink bugs, which was a big drop for stink bug catch from the previous week. One arthropod pest that has cause some issues lately is spider mites. This pest will often have outbreaks when the weather is hot and dry. Commercial tomato growers are managing this pest with Oberon, Acramite, and Agrimek primarily. Another very good new miticide labeled on vegetables is Portal available from Nichino America. Relative to vegetables soybeans have very few highly effective miticides. Growers can suppress high populations with Dimethoate, Lorsban, or Warrior. However, repeated sprays of these products can also flare up spider mites because they destroy predatory mites. The following text was taken from the Virginia Tech Pest Management Guide for Field Crops: Mite outbreaks usually are associated with hot, dry weather, which accelerates reproduction and development. During periods of high humidity and field moisture, a fungal disease can reduce populations but high temperatures can nullify these effects. Outbreaks also are associated with the application of certain insecticides that kill natural enemies and/or seem to make the soybean plant more nutritionally suitable for mites. Check weekly for mites, starting in early July through August, especially during a hot, dry season. Concentrate on the field borders and look for the early signs of white stippling at the bases of the leaves. Do not confuse mite damage with dry weather injury, mineral deficiencies, and herbicide injury. If feeding injury is evident, press the undersides of a few damaged leaves on white paper to reveal any crushed mites. Determine the extent of the infestation and assess the level of injury by examining 20 to 30 plants in the infested area. Field infestations often show defoliated or injured plants at some localized point, with injury becoming less evident and extending in a widening arc into the field. If isolated spots of mite activity are confined to the perimeter of the field, spot-treatment using ground equipment is recommended to prevent further spread of mites into the field. If the infestation is distributed throughout the interior of the field, treatment of the entire field is suggested if live mites are numerous (20 to 30 per leaflet) and more than 50 percent of the plants show stippling, yellowing, or defoliation over more than one-third of the leaves. If rains come, mite development and survival will decrease but may not drop to economic levels if heavy populations are developing under high temperatures.
Jul-01-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
2010 Eastern Shore AREC Research Field Day July 14
Please join us July 14th in Painter, VA for the 2010 Eastern Shore AREC Annual Research Field Day. The field program will begin at 8:30 am and there will be a lunch following the tours. Click More News to view a draft of the program. Hope to see you there. [More]
Jul-01-2010
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Neonicotinoid choices for plant bug control in cotton
There are three neonicotinoid insecticides labeled for plant bug control in cotton. The attached table presents the rates (oz and lb ai/acre). The low and high rates of all products are essentially equal in terms of the amount of active ingredient applied per acre. Although all are neonicotinoides, each of the products is a different compound so activity against plant bug (and stink bug) may differ (Centric contains thimethoxam; Trimax Pro contains imidacloprid, and Belay contains clothianidin). We are in the process of comparing these three for effectiveness in controlling plant bugs in cotton. We will share the results soon. We do have some stink bug control data in both soybeans and cotton, but will wait for another week or so before posting that information. [More]
Jul-01-2010
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Spider mite threat to peanut is high
With the dry weather, spider mites are already showing up in many crops and weedy field edges. Once established, mites are tough to control in peanuts. One of the most risky options is the application of Lorsban 15G under dry conditions. Lorsban can contribute to mite flares in peanuts and it is our experience that Lorsban flared mite populations are especially hard to get under control. Lorsban may be needed for rootworm control at some point in the season, but if fields remain dry, rootworms will not survive in the soil and will not be a threat. Lorsban would be safe if the crop is under irrigation, otherwise, I would recommend holding off for another week or so to see what the weather is going to do. There will still be time to apply Lorsban (through July) if the weather turns and we start getting consistent rains. We are also beginning to see some potato leafhopper damage in peanuts. Lorsban will provide good leafhopper control for a few weeks, but the risk of flaring mites offsets that advantage. A better option would be to apply Danitol at the 6 oz/acre rate which will control leafhoppers, and will suppress the mite population.
Jul-01-2010
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Spider mites are showing up in soybean
The dry weather has provided the perfect opportunity for spider mite flares. We have reports of infested soybean fields in Charles City County and some in the Suffolk/Southampton County area. Miticide options are limited in soybean to bifenthrin (Capture, Brigade, and others), dimethoate, and Lorsban 4E. Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid so products will provide knock down of adults and nymphs, but not control of eggs. If there are a lot of eggs present at the time of application, they will hatch and could require a second application within 5 days or so of the first. Dimethoate is a foliar systemic but must be absorbed and translocated by the leaf tissues to provide residual action; otherwise, it undergoes rapid photodecomposition from sunlight. This leaf absorption process is greatly reduced in drought-stressed plants that have "shut-down" physiologically. According to Dr. Whalen (Univ. of Del), another important factor that plays a role in the performance of dimethoate is the pH of the water used as the carrier. Many pesticides, especially dimethoate, are subject to breakdown by alkaline hydrolysis. In alkaline water (high pH), dimethoate break down can result in poorer than expected field performance. Dimethoate degradation is also accelerated by the mineral content of the water, especially the presence of iron. If a high pH situation exists, you can lower the alkalinity of the water in the spray tank by adding an acid-based buffer. The buffer must be added to the spray tank first, before the addition of dimethoate. Lorsban 4E is somewhat effective against mites and offers the advantage of also having good activity against grasshoppers and some other pests. The very best control for spider mites is rain. I wish I could recommend that but I reckon my connections are not quite that good, yet!
Jun-24-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect pest activity on the Eastern Shore for week ending June 25
Insect counts this week from the Blacklight trap in Painter, VA were as follows: No corn earworms or armyworms; 4 European corn borer moths; 3 tobacco hornworm moths; 81 brown stink bugs; 8 green stink bugs. Thus, pest moth activity is low right now for all species; but brown stink bugs are quite active at present; probably flying out of wheat fields. These insects can cause serious damage to tomatoes, cotton, beans, sweet corn, and other crops. They move from crop to crop as fruit or pods form. Pyrethroid insecticides are often the cheapest and most effective control for these pests. Thrips have been very active on crops with tobacco thrips feeding on the leaves of tomatoes and newly emerged beans; and flower thrips infesting the flowers of various crops. Some commercial tomato fields have experienced up to 5 thrips per bloom, which is very high. Some identifications of thrips samples brought to my lab have revealed that up to 50% of the flower thrips may be Western Flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, which has been shown to flare up after repeated sprays from pyrethroid insecticides. Some other options for thrips control include Orthene on some crops like green beans, Radiant on most vegetables, Lannate, and most of the neonicotinoid insecticides (Provado, Actara, Venom, Assail, Belay, and Scorpion).
Jun-24-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory
VPDA for June 24th. [More]
Jun-17-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory for June 17
Please see the latest version of the VPDA [More]
Jun-13-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
New Belay Insecticide label on vegetables
Valent USA announces the new Belay insecticide label on vegetables and other crops. Belay includes the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin, which has been used widely in the seed treatment Poncho. Our insecticide research trial results in Virginia have shown Belay to be as effective as other neonicotinoid insecticides for sucking pests and beetles on vegetables. Click More News to download a copy of the new label. [More]
Jun-11-2010
Field Corn (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
New insecticide option for slug control on corn and soybeans - Lannate LV
In wet years, SLugs can be a serious pest problem on corn and soybeans. It has been many years since there has been any new pesticide registered for their control. Dupont recently announced the new registration of Lannate LV FOR USE ON FIELD CORN AND SOYBEANS FOR THE CONTROL OF SLUGS IN certain states in the U.S. The special label is attached. Click More News. [More]
Jun-11-2010
Field Corn (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Stink bug pest pressure on corn on the Eastern Shore
Some no-till cornfields on the Eastern Shore are experiencing pest pressure from stink bugs. These insects can impact yield up to 10%. For corn seedlings and early whorl stage before silking, small developing ears (½ - ¾ inches long) can be damaged by stink bug feeding resulting in malformed ear development. Treat corn if 10 percent or more of plants are infested with stink bugs at or shortly before ear shoots appear (about V15). Do not treat stink bug infestations once silking has begun. Most pyrethroid insecticides (such as Karate, Warrior II, Baythroid XL, Hero, Brigade, Prolex, Tombstone, and the generic equivalents, etc..) are effective against stink bugs.
Jun-11-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory for June 10
Please see the VPDA for June 10 [More]
Jun-10-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Cucurbit Downy Mildew in North Carolina
Please review the following disease alert involving downy mildew of cucurbits. [More]
Jun-04-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory
Please find the lastest Virginia Potato Disease Advisory attached. [More]
Jun-03-2010
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Thrips populations still high but treatments are holding
A quick note after a long daywe just completed our annual Early Season Field Tour where we showed about 75 attendees a lot of our cotton and peanut thrips trials. Thrips populations are large and there are dramatic differences in the amount of plant injury between the treatments (which is why we plan this tour for early June). In each trial we have untreated plots where thrips populations are allowed to develop uncontrolled so we see and assess these worst case scenarios. That is, how bad would they get and what kind of yield loss would you have if you didnt treat for them. Each week, for about five weeks after plant emergence, we sample thrips populations (adults and immatures) and do plant injury ratings for each treatment. This gives a good comparison of the different treatments, how well they control the thrips, how long they work and of course, ultimately, how much yield they protect. In our tests, as of this weeks sample we are counting from 113 to 160 immature thrips per 5 plant sample in cotton (that is 22 to 32 per small seedling), and 62 immatures per 10 peanut leaflets. These are very high numbers. The plant injury in these untreated controls is severe. The cotton plants are being killed, and the peanuts are severely stunted with blackened terminals. But the good news is that even under this extreme thrips pressure, most treatments are holding well. Temik, Aeris and Avicta treatments are doing well in cotton, and Temik and several experimental seed and in-furrow applied insecticide treatments are holding in peanuts. Protected plants are green and vigorous. This field tour offers a good opportunity to really see what thrips are capable of in terms of plant damage, and how the many different insecticide options compare. With the high thrips numbers we are seeing this week, we can expect at least one more week of extreme pressure. Next week we will assess all the plots again and post an update on how things are shaping up.
May-27-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - May 26
Attached is the latest version of the Virginia Potato Disease Advisory. [More]
May-26-2010
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
June 3 tour reminder
We will be hosting the annual Early Summer Row Crops and Vegetables Tour: Insects, Diseases, and Agronomics at the Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Suffolk, VA on Thursday, June 3, 2010. The tour will begin at 9:00 am at the Research Farm (1045 Hare Road) and lunch will be provided, courtesy of Berry Lewis with Bayer CropScience. Pesticide recertification credits will be available for Commercial Applicator Categories 1-A, 1-C, 10, and Registered Technician. Please see the attached brochure for more details. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event. [More]
May-20-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - May 19
Attached is the latest VPDA report. Please take notice of the fungicide application recommendations on the first page of the report. [More]
May-19-2010
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Virginia thrips update: adult numbers high, larvae still low
Just a short update on the thrips situation in Virginia cotton and peanuts  I have gotten several calls from growers and field scouts/consultants with questions about what the thrips are doing, and how the Temik and seed treatments are holding up given this strange season. It was very dry in April and early May to the extent that growers had to stop planting. This week that situation totally reversed itself with some areas (our research Center included) getting over 5 inches of rain. The rain has brought a lot of cotton out of the ground that had been sitting for several days in the dry soil, almost two weeks in some cases. In my plots, as in many growers fields, some plants had already emerged and are in the 1 to 2 leaf stage, while others are just emerging. But the good news is that as of today, the Temik and seed treatments are holding well. I base this on the soapy-sample data (5 cotton seedlings per plot, 10 peanut leaflets per plot) from several tests we sampled this week. In cotton tests (planted on May 4), Temik treated plots are averaging about 1.5 adults/5 plants and Aeris seed treatment plots are averaging about 2.5  3 adults/5 plants. This is compared to about 20-30 adults/5 plants in the untreated controls. So far, there are almost no larvae in any plots, but with these high adult numbers, we expect to see a lot over the next 2 weeks. In peanut tests (planted on Apr 29), Temik treated plots are averaging about 1  2 adults/10 leaflets, compared with 15  25 adults/10 leaflets in the untreated controls. Larval numbers are also still very low, less than 1/leaflet even in the untreated controls. Again, these high adult numbers will result in large larval populations over the next couple of weeks. But, for now, the in-furrow and seed treatments are holding. We are sampling some Avicta seed treated cotton plots later in the week so will have some of that data to share next week.
May-13-2010
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Update on cotton/peanut thrips situation
Until the rain last night (May 13), it was shaping up to be a worst-case-scenario for early season thrips pressure in Virginia cotton. With the prevailing dry conditions, and vacillating between unseasonably hot and cold temperatures, seedlings were either slow to emerge, or if emerged, were standing still. Slow growing plants have reduced root growth and are slow to pick up the systemic insecticides. Couple that with what appears to be, at least so far, a very active thrips population, and it was setting up to be a perfect storm for thrips problems. Last week we began to see adult thrips crawling on cotton seedlings and volunteer peanut plants (peanut seedlings emerging from last years crop in cotton, soybean and corn fields). We also set out a series of 3x5 inch sticky cards for monitoring adult thrips. We trapped over cotton and peanut fields, brought the cards in after 3 days, and counted over 100 adult thrips per card (counting both sides). A lot of them were not pest species, but there were plenty of tobacco thrips, our primary cotton and peanut pest. This week we sampled two peanut trials and one cotton trial for thrips (10 peanut leaflets per plot, and 5 cotton seedlings per plot)using our standard soapy-water sampling technique and found an average of about 1 adult and 0.1 larvae per plant in cotton, and 0.5 adults and zero larvae per peanut leaflet. These are very low numbers compared with where it will go from here, but shows that we are definitely at the beginning of what I call Thrips Season. We are already seeing evidence of thrips feeding damage on untreated cotton and peanut seedlings. Last nights rain, about 1 ¼ inches, fell across most of the cotton/peanut counties. Before that rain we were facing the problem of having fields with two crop ages. Cotton planted in rows where moisture was available is up and into the first, even second leaf stage. In areas of the same field where no moisture was available to seeds, plants are not up yet. A long gap between emergence dates results in plants being in different growth stages in the same field which greatly complicates thrips management decisions, that is, when to treat for thrips and where. The rain last night should go a long way towards clearing this up.
May-13-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - May 12
The latest VPDA is attached. Please let us know if you have any questions. [More]
May-08-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late Blight Found in Maryland
I have just received a preliminary report of confirmed late blight infecting tomato plants in St. Mary's County, Maryland. It is possible that plants from this greenhouse were planted in Charles County, Maryland. These two counties are in close proximity to Virginia and our growers near these locations (Eastern Shore, Northern Neck, Northern Virginia) should be proactive in making fungicide applications that target late blight on both potato and tomato. Fortunately, our prevailing weather conditions across the eastern part of the Commonwealth have been nonconducive for late blight development. As more details develop we will be able to more specifically give you recommendations. We will be sure to keep you up to date. Please pass this information along as you see fit. Thanks Steve
May-08-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Late Blight Reported in Maryland
I have just received a preliminary report of confirmed late blight infecting tomato plants in St. Mary's County, Maryland. It is possible that plants from this greenhouse were planted in Charles County, Maryland. These two counties are in close proximity to Virginia and our growers near these locations (Eastern Shore, Northern Neck, Northern Virginia) should be proactive in making fungicide applications that target late blight on both potato and tomato. Fortunately, our prevailing weather conditions across the eastern part of the Commonwealth have been nonconducive for late blight development. As more details develop we will be able to more specifically give you recommendations. We will be sure to keep you up to date.
May-06-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - May 4
Attached is the VPDA for May 4. Please let me know if you have any questions. [More]
Apr-28-2010
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - April 27
Attached is the first Virginia Potato Disease Advisory for 2010. Please let me know if you have any questions. [More]
Apr-06-2010
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Early Summer Row Crops and Vegetables Tour--Tidewater AREC, Suffolk, VA
We will be hosting the annual Early Summer Row Crops and Vegetables Tour: Insects, Diseases, and Agronomics at the Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Suffolk, VA on Thursday, June 3, 2010. The tour will begin at 9:00 am at the Hare Road research farm and lunch will be provided, courtesy of Berry Lewis with Bayer CropScience. Please see the attached brochure for more details. If you are interested in an equipment, company or agency display, please contact us. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event. [More]
Apr-01-2010
Small Grains (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Is Wheat at Greater Risk to Cereal Leaf Beetle?
See the attached advisory with color images, details about the late wheat crop and increased risk to cereal leaf beetle, thresholds, scouting procedures and insecticide recommendations. [More]
Mar-11-2010
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Two new insecticides: Belay and Inovate
Valent U.S.A. Corporation has recently registered two new products for pest control in soybean and cotton in Virginia. Belay , has the neonicotinoid, clothianidin, as the active ingredient and is labeled for foliar applications to control aphids, plant bugs and stink bugs in cotton at 3  4 oz per acre, and is labeled for control of aphids, bean leaf beetles, Japanese beetles, leafhoppers, plant bugs, stink bugs and three-cornered alfalfa hoppers in soybean at 3  4 oz per acre. INOVATE, a combination of clothianidin and the fungicide, RANCONA (metalaxyl + ipconazole), is now labeled as a seed treatment for soybean to control early season insect pests and seedling disease. Belay has performed well in our cotton and soybean stink bug research trials. We have not evaluted INOVATE, but will be this coming field season. Contact us if you have any questions regarding these new options.
Oct-01-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Final black light trap report for 2009
Thanks to all the black light trap operators for all their reports this season. We are putting away our black light traps until next year. The final corn earworm moth table is attached. [More]
Sep-25-2009
Soybean (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Soybean looper problems in Northampton County
A lot of soybean fields in Northampton County, particularly in the Cape Charles area, suffered some late-season defoliation from soybean looper. There was a lot of concern about insecticide resistance in this often difficult-to-control pest, particularly after loopers appeared in fields after being sprayed with a pyrethroid. After hearing reports from some growers and cooperators and their experiences, pyrethroids such as Baythroid and Warrior, were effective against this pest if you got good coverage and penetration into the canopy. Also, follow-up sprays of Warrior appeared to clean up the larvae in some of the problem fields. It is more than likely that some of the soybean looper infestations that we had on the soybeans in Northampton County following sprays of Warrior or another pyrethroid were a result of poor coverage or possibly bad timing. It would have been very difficult for a low volume aerial application to penetrate all of the foliage that we had on our dense soybean canopies this year in Northampton County. It is possible that soybean loopers fed on untreated leaves in the lower canopy, then moved on to the pesticide covered upper foliage after the residual was gone.
Sep-25-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect Trap Counts for the Eastern Shore for Week ending Sept 18, the season finale
Folks, this is the final insect pest trap data for 2009 for the Eastern Shore. We've pulled up all of the blacklight and pheromone traps. In general, there is still a little bit of moth activity of corn earworm and beet armyworm, and fall armyworm has increased on the Shore. Blacklight trap counts for this week were as follows: David Long (Cape Charles) = 25 corn earworm, 7 beet armyworm, 4 fall armyworm, 4 green stink bug. Blacklight trap - Mark Colson (Eastville) = 14 corn earworm, 10 beet armyworm, 13 Fall armyworm; 0 green stink bugs, 1 brown stink bugs. Blacklight trap Painter = 8 corn earworm moths, 8 beet armyworm, 3 fall armyworm, 16 green stink bugs, 0 brown stink bugs. ******************************************Corn earworm Pheromone Traps (weekly catch): Keller = 8; Tasley = 0; Modesttown = 1 ; New Church = 3; Horntown = 2; Eastville = 25; Machipongo = 9 ; Painter = 3; Guilford = 0. Beet armyworm Pheromone traps (weekly catch): Modestown = 0; New Church = 1; Horntown = 12; Machipongo = 53 (increase); Painter = 1. Fall armyworm pheromone traps (weekly catch): Painter: 75(big increase); Newman - Eastville: 29 (increase); Hortntown: 28 (increase). ****************************************************************************************Summary, corn earworm and beet armyworm moths are still flying on the Eastern Shore, and are likely still depositing eggs on whatever green plants they can find. Late planted beans, fruiting vegetables and cole crops are prime host crops this time of year for both species. Weve also observed an increase in fall armyworm moths at every location on the Eastern Shore. This pest can attack a wide range of vegetable host plants as well, and can even be a pest of turf.
Sep-25-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect Trap Counts for the Eastern Shore for Week ending Sept 18, the season finale
Folks, this is the final insect pest trap data for 2009 for the Eastern Shore. We've pulled up all of the blacklight and pheromone traps. In general, there is still a little bit of moth activity of corn earworm and beet armyworm, and fall armyworm has increased on the Shore. Blacklight trap counts for this week were as follows: David Long (Cape Charles) = 25 corn earworm, 7 beet armyworm, 4 fall armyworm, 4 green stink bug. Blacklight trap - Mark Colson (Eastville) = 14 corn earworm, 10 beet armyworm, 13 Fall armyworm; 0 green stink bugs, 1 brown stink bugs. Blacklight trap Painter = 8 corn earworm moths, 8 beet armyworm, 3 fall armyworm, 16 green stink bugs, 0 brown stink bugs. ******************************************Corn earworm Pheromone Traps (weekly catch): Keller = 8; Tasley = 0; Modesttown = 1 ; New Church = 3; Horntown = 2; Eastville = 25; Machipongo = 9 ; Painter = 3; Guilford = 0. Beet armyworm Pheromone traps (weekly catch): Modestown = 0; New Church = 1; Horntown = 12; Machipongo = 53 (increase); Painter = 1. Fall armyworm pheromone traps (weekly catch): Painter: 75(big increase); Newman - Eastville: 29 (increase); Hortntown: 28 (increase). ****************************************************************************************Summary, corn earworm and beet armyworm moths are still flying on the Eastern Shore, and are likely still depositing eggs on whatever green plants they can find. Late planted beans, fruiting vegetables and cole crops are prime host crops this time of year for both species. Weve also observed an increase in fall armyworm moths at every location on the Eastern Shore. This pest can attack a wide range of vegetable host plants as well, and can even be a pest of turf.
Sep-24-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap catches for the week ending Sep. 24, 2009
Please see the attached table for the corn earworm moth summary. [More]
Sep-21-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Yulu Xia
Eastern Shore AREC Field Day Cancelled
This message is being sent on behalf of Dr. Steven Rideout: Due to several scheduling conflicts and excessive rainfall last week the Fall Field Day at the Eastern Shore AREC in Painter, VA scheduled for Wednesday, Sept. 23rd at 9:00 AM has been canceled. Sorry for any inconveniences this may have caused.
Sep-21-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Tomato Late Blight on Virginia's Eastern Shore
After a two month hiatus due to warmer temperatures, late blight is back on tomatoes on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Growers wishing for their tomato crops to survive until the first frost are urged to consider applications of late blight specific fungicides.
Sep-17-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect Trap catch on the Eastern Shore for Week Ending Sept 18
Insect Trap Counts for the Eastern Shore for Week ending Sept 18. Moth activity picked up a little bit from the previous rainy last week. Blacklight trap counts for this week were as follows: David Long (Cape Charles) = 22 corn earworm, 5 beet armyworm, 4 fall armyworm, 1 green stink bug (very low). Blacklight trap - Mark Colson (Eastville) = 31 corn earworm, 9 beet armyworm, 6 Fall armyworm; 12 green stink bugs, 1 brown stink bugs. Blacklight trap Painter = 27 corn earworm moths, 15 beet armyworm, 15 fall armyworm, 36 green stink bugs, 3 brown stink bugs. ******************************************Corn earworm Pheromone Traps (weekly catch): Keller = 0; Tasley = 0; Modesttown = 1 (drop); New Church = 1; Horntown = 0; Eastville = 16; Machipongo = 3 (big drop); Painter = 3; Guilford = 1. Beet armyworm Pheromone traps (weekly catch): Modestown = 3; New Church = 2; Horntown = 24; Machipongo = 27; Painter = 20. Fall armyworm pheromone traps (weekly catch): Painter: 11; Newman - Eastville: 0; Hortntown: 2. ****************************************************************************************Summary, corn earworm moth activity appears to be finally dropping off on the Eastern Shore. Corn earworm, beet armyworm, and fall armyworm moths are still flying on the Eastern Shore and laying eggs on crops. Tomatoes in Painter at the ESAREC had above threshold numbers of new eggs on leaves this week. Sprays for worm pests are advised. Beet armyworm larval activity has also been seen in tomatoes and peppers. Stink bugs are present, but not in high numbers in late-planted soybean fields. Soybean loopers have been reported as a big pest problem in lower Northampton County. This insect pest appears to have survived the preventative pyrethroid sprays on many soybean fields, and may need some different insecticide classes to kill it, such as Steward, Tracer, Lannate, or Larvin, or Intrepid. The new Cobalt insecticide from Dow would likely also control soybean looper.
Sep-17-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth counts for the week ending Sep. 17, 2009
Please see the attached table for the corn earworm moth summary. [More]
Sep-15-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Fall Field Day at the Eastern Shore AREC in Painter on Sep. 23, 2009
There will be an informal field day at Virginia Tech's Eastern Shore AREC on Sep. 23, 2009 at 9:00 AM. The field day will showcase disease control trials in vegetables and field crops. Other trial work at the research station will also be displayed if interested. If you are interested in more information or will be attending the field day please email Steve Rideout at srideout@vt.edu. Thanks
Sep-10-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Eastern Shore Insect Trap Counts for Week ending Sept 11
Insect Trap Counts for the Eastern Shore for Week ending Sept 11 In general moth activity has dropped off considerably this week. The Blacklight trap counts for this week were as follows: David Long (Cape Charles) = 10 corn earworm (down from last week), 3 beet armyworm, 0 fall armyworm (low), 0 brown stink bug, 1 green stink bug (very low). Blacklight trap - Mark Colson (Eastville) = 9 corn earworm, 6 beet armyworm (drop), 2 Fall armyworm; 2 green stink bugs, 0 brown stink bugs. Blacklight trap Painter = 7 corn earworm moths (drop), 1 green stink bugs, 0 brown stink bugs. ******************************************Corn earworm Pheromone Traps (weekly catch): Keller = 0; Tasley = 0; Modesttown = 15 (moderate); New Church = 1; Horntown = 0; Eastville = 6 (drop); Machipongo = 9 (drop); Painter = 7 (drop); Guilford = 0. Beet armyworm Pheromone traps (weekly catch): Modestown = 5; New Church = 2; Horntown = 14; Machipongo = 52 (drop, but still active); Painter = 31 (rise). Fall armyworm pheromone traps (weekly catch): Painter: 21 (moderate); Newman - Eastville: 1; Hortntown: 4. ****************************************************************************************Summary, corn earworm moth activity appears to be finally dropping off on the Eastern Shore. The moths are on the decline in Northampton County and lower Accomack. However, larval activity in tomatoes, cotton, soybeans, green beans, and lima beans is probably quite active if insecticide sprays were not applied over the past couple weeks - during the heavy flights. Beet armyworm moth activity has dropped in Northampton County, but remains moderate in the Machipongo location. Stink bug adult activity appears to be done for the season. Heavy rains like we've recently experienced on the Eastern Shore will often finish off the pest outbreaks of number of insect species, particularly caterpillar or "worm" pests. In additon to washing small larvae off of plants, heavy precipitation often will trigger high mortality from insect disease pathogens such as fungi and bacteria. This natural control may save growers an insecticide spray.
Sep-04-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect Trap Counts for the Eastern Shore for Week ending Sept 4
Insect Trap Counts for Eastern Shore - Week ending Sept 4. In general, catches of 7 or more moths per week indicate an activity alert for scouting for that pest. The Blacklight trap counts for this week were as follows: David Long (Cape Charles) = 33 corn earworm (down from last week), 8 beet armyworm (small rise), 1 fall armyworm (low), 1 brown stink bug, 1 green stink bug (very low). Blacklight trap - Mark Colson (Eastville) = 46 corn earworm (same as last week), 0 beet armyworm (drop), 0 Fall armyworn (low); 8 green stink bugs, 4 brown stink bugs (drop). Blacklight trap Painter = 15 corn earworm moths (drop), 31 green stink bugs (still active), 5 brown stink bugs (low). ******************************************Corn earworm Pheromone Traps (weekly catch): Keller = 0; Tasley = 2 (drop); Modesttown = 27 (moderate); New Church = 1; Horntown = 16 (moderate); Eastville = 19 (big drop); Machipongo = 24 (drop); Painter = 22 (drop); Guilford = 2(low). Beet armyworm Pheromone traps (weekly catch): Modestown = 3; New Church = 2; Horntown = 2; Machipongo = 162 (remaining high); Painter = 14 (drop). Fall armyworm pheromone traps (weekly catch): Painter: 23 (rise); Newman - Eastville: 3; Hortntown: 0 (low everywhere) ****************************************************************************************Summary, corn earworm moth activity appears to be finally dropping off on the Eastern Shore. The moths are on the decline in Northampton County and lower Accomack. However, larval activity in tomatoes, cotton, soybeans, green beans, and lima beans is probably quite active if insecticide sprays were not applied over the past couple weeks - during the heavy flights. Beet armyworm remains quite active in the Machipongo location, but still, very few moths appear to be found outside that area on the Shore. Stink bug catch appears to have dropped off. Sybean loopers were detected in soybeans in Northampton County. These caterpillars can cause a lot of late-season defoliation, and are sometimes difficult to kill. Some years, there is pyrethroid resistance problems with that insect pest species. In addition, soybean aphids can still be found on some soybeans on the Eastern Shore, particularly in Accomack County. These insects should probably not be the driving force behind spraying your soybeans. Targeting corn earworms after egg hatch and before pods harden is critical to maximizing yield loss from insects.
Sep-03-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap catches for week ending Sep. 3, 2009
Please see the attached table for this week's corn earworm moth counts. [More]
Sep-03-2009
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Soybean aphid update
Looks like soybean aphids are not done yet in Virginia. And, I received a call today about a possible threshold situation in northeast North Carolina. Growers have treated some fields in the areas where thresholds were met last week. We have learned of a new area in King George County where aphids have exceeded thresholds, in a very late planted field, in about the R3-R4 growth stage. We are having a cooling trend which will favor these critters, and will slow bean maturity. Unless we can come up with some 'emergency' funds, we have to discontinue our scouting program at the end of next week. We really need to go for at least 2 or 3 weeks. By then, the double crop will have reached the safe stage (R6).
Aug-28-2009
Field Corn (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect Trap Counts for Eastern Shore - Week ending Aug 29
Insect Trap Counts for Eastern Shore - Week ending Aug 29. In general, catches of 7 or more moths per week indicate an activity alert for scouting for that pest. The Blacklight trap counts for this week were as follows: David Long (Cape Charles) = 93 corn earworm (remaining high), 16 beet armyworm (small rise), 4 fall armyworm (low), 1 brown stink bugs, 6 green stink bugs (very low). Blacklight trap - Mark Colson (Eastville) = 47 corn earworm (decrease), 10 beet armyworm (small rise), 1 Fall armyworn (low); 17 green stink bugs, 9 brown stink bugs (drop). Blacklight trap Painter = 26 corn earworm moths (mod. low), 22 green stink bugs (big drop), 2 brown stink bugs (drop). ******************************************Corn earworm Pheromone Traps (weekly catch): Keller = 3; Tasley = 13 (rise); Modesttown = 56 (big rise); New Church = 2; Horntown = 42 (big rise); Eastville = 177 (high and rising); Machipongo = 54 (drop); Painter = 69 (rise); Guilford = 5(low). Beet armyworm Pheromone traps (weekly catch): Modestown = 3; New Church = 3; Horntown = 4; Machipongo = 91 (remaining high); Painter = 29 (rise). Fall armyworm pheromone traps (weekly catch): Painter: 1; Newman - Eastville: 6; Hortntown: 4 (low everywhere) ****************************************************************************************Summary, corn earworm moth remains active on the Eastern Shore and additional egg laying on crops is likely. As mentioned previously, trap catches of 7 or more moths per week indicate the need for intensive scouting of crops for the pests. Tomatoes, cotton, soybeans, green beans, and lima beans are important susceptible host crops on the Eastern Shore. Beet armyworm remains active in the Machipongo location, but few moths appear to be found outside that area. Stink bug catch appears to have dropped off, and not much activity has been seen in soybeans. Soybean aphids can be found on some soybeans on the Eastern Shore, particularly in Accomack County. These insects should probably not be the driving force behind spraying your soybeans. Targeting corn earworms after egg hatch and before pods harden is critical to maximizing yield loss from insects. Most pyrethroid insecticides will control corn earworm as well as the other pests including soybean aphids, stink bugs, grasshoppers, and other caterpillar pests with the exception of beet armyworm. Fortunately I've not heard of any beet armyworm outbreaks so far on the Eastern Shore this year.
Aug-27-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap catches for week ending Aug. 27, 2009
In general, corn earworm moth catches were lower than mid-August's numbers. Please see the attached table for more specifics. [More]
Aug-27-2009
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Soybean insect pest update
Soybean Aphids: We are seeing an increase in soybean aphid numbers in the same areas we reported last week. I heard today that populations were building in one new area, on our Eastern Shore. Aphid populations are often mixed with corn earworms and stink bugs and although none are at threshold, the combination is making growers nervous. Several have applied insecticides. We are continuing our aphid survey of about 30-40 fields until mid September (when the funds run out). We will have an update on the situation when our scout reports in this Friday. Corn Earworms: Corn earworms are still showing up in a lot of fields, but threshold levels are spotty. Moths are flying and some areas are still reporting fairly high numbers. Many soybean fields, mostly the double crop fields, are still susceptible to worm damage and will be for at least three more weeks. We are encouraging growers to continue scouting. Attached is a one page handout with bullet points regarding the current corn earworm situation. Stink Bugs: We are finding very large stink bug populations in a few fields, and a few in most. Of the fields we are surveying, the greatest majority are green stink bugs. Stink bugs seem to pile up in soybean fields as the summer progresses, and into the early fall weeks. We are doing some field cage studies to try to sort out what these bugs are doing to bean yields and seed quality. For now, we should abide by the thresholds. On a positive note, our field trials over the last few years have shown that standard pyrethroids provided excellent control of green stink bugs. [More]
Aug-20-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for the week ending Aug. 20, 2009
Average nightly trap catches for corn earworm moths, as reported by cooperators, are included in the attached table. [More]
Aug-20-2009
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm update
We are now hearing of threshold levels of corn earworm scattered across the region. Infestations are spotty. For example, we are not finding many worms in Chesapeake, VA Beach or Suffolk but have heard of infestations in several other areas. As many beans are still a long way from safe (R7), we may see more fields reach threshold as we get closer to Labor Day.
Aug-20-2009
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Soybean aphid outbreaks
Ed Seymore, our soybean aphid scout has reported finding above threshold numbers (500+/plant) of soybean aphid in fields in southwest Fauquier Co and northwest Culpeper Co. These aphid populations have been increasing over the past two weeks and are in late planted beans that are in the R3-R4 growth stage. This fits the scenario for a treshold, as best we understand it.
Aug-20-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect Trap Counts for Eastern Shore - Week ending Aug 21.
As mentioned previously, trap catches of 7 or more moths per week indicate the need for intensive scouting of crops for the pests. The Blacklight trap counts for this week were as follows: David Long (Cape Charles) = 90 corn earworm (increase), 8 beet armyworm (small rise), 10 fall armyworm (rise), 1 brown stink bugs, 2 green stink bugs (very low). Blacklight trap - Mark Colson (Eastville) = 129 corn earworm (increase), 8 beet armyworm (small rise), 2 Fall armyworn (small rise); 27 green stink bugs, 17 brown stink bugs (drop). Blacklight trap Painter = 17 corn earworm moths (mod. low), 67 green stink bugs (drop), 11 brown stink bugs (drop). Corn earworm Pheromone Traps (weekly catch): Keller = 1; Tasley = 3; Modesttown = 1; New Church = 0; Horntown = 17; Eastville = 128 (high); Machipongo = 104 (high); Painter = 20; Guilford = 1. Beet armyworm Pheromone traps (weekly catch): Modestown = 5 New Church = 3; Horntown = 5; Machipongo = 157; Painter = 6. Fall armyworm pheromone traps (weekly catch): Painter: 1; Newman - Eastville: 26; Hortntown: 8 ****************************************************************************************Summary, corn earworm flights appear to have leveled out, but remain high for Northampton County (Machipongo & Eastville). As mentioned previously, trap catches of 7 or more moths per week indicate the need for intensive scouting of crops for the pests. This insect can damage numerous crops in late summer including sweet corn, tomatoes, cotton, soybeans, green beans, lima beans, and others. Beet armyworm activity remains high in the Machipongo location. Stink bug catch in general appears to have dropped off, but there is still some adult movement from crop to crop. It is advised to scout fruiting vegetables and soybeans for these pests into Septemeber. There are moderate levels of soybean aphids in some soybeans on the Eastern Shore. These insects can build up to extremely high numbers on soybean leaves and stems. Heavy infestations can cause yield loss. Most pyrethroid insecticides will control them, but growers should first inspect fields with a sweep net for other pests such as corn earworm, stink bugs, grasshoppers, and other caterpillar pests so that multiple insecticide sprays are not necessary.
Aug-13-2009
Soybean (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Corn earworm and pyrethroid susceptibility, soybean aphid, and Mexican bean beetle update
Corn earworm and pyrethroid susceptibility, soybean aphid, and Mexican bean beetle update CORN EARWORM: Moths are continuing to exhibit high levels of survivorship in our adult pyrethroid vial tests (see the attached line graph). We are striving to test several hundred moths each week as we feel this is important information for growers. As of this week, we are hearing of some fields where growers are getting less than satisfactory results with their pyrethroid sprays. Earworms are reported to be in peanut, cotton and soybean fields in our area. It is time for folks to begin scouting throughout the state. In areas that are mostly dry, the problem is worse. In wetter areas, numbers are slower to build. The moth flight is increasing gradually, but has still not peaked. Rains are keeping the corn green, which tends to hold them in the corn, and in general, moth activity is less during rainy periods. Moth activity is higher in dry areas. If things dry out over the next two weeks, we can expect a large flight. But if it stays wet, the moth flight and subsequent earworm numbers will be suppressed. SOYBEAN APHID: Weather conditions (generally cool in the low to mid 80s/wet) are nearly perfect for soybean aphid survival in some parts of the state and consequently, we are getting reports of high numbers in some areas. We will provide more detail next week, but as of today, many fields in the Gloucester/Mathews area, the Goochland area and the Shenandoah Valley have populations. I recently spoke with one of the entomologists in the north central states who was part of the large effort to develop the soybean aphid thresholds and here are his main talking points. Thresholds only apply up to the R5 growth stage. After that, beans can withstand 1000s per plant with no detectable problem. From R1-up to R5, the threshold is 250/plant IF POPULATIONS ARE INCREASING. Even maintaining at 250/plant does not result in a yield loss. An insecticide application at 250, when populations are increasing, prevents that increase. This is an important concept to be aware of. It takes consecutive field visits and good record keeping to determine if the population is holding, increasing, or decreasing due to predation by predators (lady beetles for example). He also warned that tank mixing an aphid insecticide (a pyrethroid) with a herbicide will only provide aphid control if the spray system is set up for high volume (10 + gpa) and small droplet size. The large droplet systems used for herbicides will not work well for aphids. Hollow cone spray patterns with small droplet size are needed to get product to circulate throughout the soybean canopy, to the undersides of leaves where aphids are feeding. MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE: Prior to when I came to Virginia (in Aug 1988) Mexican bean beetle had been a major pest of soybeans. For a number of debatable reasons, in the years just before I arrived populations crashed. Since then I have seen them a total of two times in isolated areas, only in years and areas where it stayed wet and cool (relatively) all summer. Galen Dively in Maryland reported today that they are seeing a few outbreaks on the Maryland Eastern Shore. As cool and wet as it is in some parts of Virginia, it would not surprise me to hear of a few outbreaks. Keep a watch out for them. They do the worst damage when they go undetected in the first couple of generations. They gradually build to higher and higher numbers until the last generation, and in what appears to be overnight they can totally defoliate a soybean field¬ a pretty sight. [More]
Aug-13-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for the week ending Aug. 13, 2009
Most reporting stations saw a large increase in corn earworm moth catches this week. Nightly averages are provided in the attached table. [More]
Aug-13-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect Trap Counts for Eastern Shore - Week ending Aug 14
Insect Trap Counts for Eastern Shore - Week ending Aug 14 The Blacklight trap counts for week ending Aug 14 were as follows: David Long (Cape Charles) = 30 corn earworm, 3 beet armyworm, 1 fall armyworm, 5 brown stink bugs, 3 green stink bugs. Blacklight trap - Mark Colson (Eastville) = 109 corn earworm, 2 beet armyworm, 2 Fall armyworn; 19 green stink bugs, 26 brown stink bugs. Blacklight trap Painter = 17 corn earworm moths, 94 green stink bugs, 19 brown stink bugs. Corn earworm Pheromone Traps (weekly catch): Keller = 26; Tasley = 7; Modesttown = 0; New Church = 4; Horntown = 0; Eastville = 178; Machipongo = 61; Painter = 94; Guilford = 7. Beet armyworm Pheromone traps (weekly catch): Modestown = 0 New Church = 1; Horntown = 0; Machipongo = 174; Painter = 3. Fall armyworm pheromone traps (weekly catch): Painter: 3; Newman - Eastville: 10; Hortntown: 7 ********************************************************************************Summary, corn earworm flights remain high for Northampton County and the Painter area. As mentioned previously, trap catches of 7 or more moths per week indicate the need for intensive scouting of crops for the pests. This insect can damage numerous crops in late summer including sweet corn, tomatoes, cotton, soybeans, green beans, lima beans, and others. Beet armyworm activity appears to be only in the Machipongo area of Northampton County. Brown stink bug catch has dropped off. Catch of green stink bugs also appears to remain moderately high in the Painter area only. In addition there are some reports of soybean aphids in soybeans on the Eastern Shore. These insects can build up to extremely high numbers on soybean leaves and stems. Heavy infestations can cause yield loss. Most pyretroid insecticides will control them, but growers should first inspect fields with a sweep net for other pests such as corn earworm, stink bugs, grasshoppers, and other caterpillar pests so that multiple insecticide sprays are not necessary.
Jul-09-2009
General Comments (Other)
From Tom Kuhar
Eastern Shore AREC Annual Field Day July 23rd
The Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Centers Annual Summer Field Day is set for Thursday, July 23. This event is free and open to the public. Sub sandwiches from Little Italy will be served for lunch. Please note that this year the field day is in the morning. Attendees can obtain 2.5 Certified Crop Advisor continuing education credits (1.5 in integrated pest management, 0.5 in crop management, and 0.5 in nutrient management). Attached is the program. Contact me if you have any questions. Many thanks, Mark ******************************************** Mark S. Reiter, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Nutrient & Soil Management Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center 33446 Research Drive Painter, VA 23420 (Phone) 757-414-0724 x 16 (Fax) 757-414-0730 ******************************************** [More]
Jul-09-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth nightly black light trap captures for the week ending July 9, 2009
The average number of corn earworm moths captured this week in black light traps ranged from zero to 5 per night. Please see the attached table for more details. [More]
Jul-09-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Eastern Shore Insect Trap Activity
As we did in 2008, we have set up moth pheromone traps and blacklight traps on the Eastern Shore of Virginia to monitor important agricultural insect pests including corn earworm, beet armyworm, and stink bugs. For corn earworm, trap catches of 7 or more moths per week indicate the need for intensive scouting of crops for the pests. This insect can damage numerous crops in late summer including sweet corn, tomatoes, cotton, soybeans, green beans, lima beans, and others. For beet armyworm, pheromone bucket traps are the best monitoring tool. Although there is no effective action threshold for moth catch and damage, traps can be used to alert growers to the potential of infestations of this pest in an area. Beet armyworms prefer pigweed to most other crops and the larvae will often be detected in those weeds before attacking most crops. Blacklight traps can be used to monitor the relative intensity of stink bug flights as well. There is no effective threshold level, but again, growers can be alerted to activity. The trap counts for week ending July 9 were as follows: Blacklight trap - David Long (Cape Charles) = 8 corn earworm, 1 beet armyworm, 20 brown stink bugs, 0 green stink bugs. Blacklight trap - Mark Colson (Eastville) = 36 corn earworm, 2 beet armyworm, 10 green stink bugs, 84 brown stink bugs. Blacklight trap  Painter = 0 moths, 88 green stink bug, 43 brown stink bugs. Corn earworm Pheromone Traps: Keller = 0 Tasley = 0 Modesttown = 2 New Church = 0 Horntown = 2 Eastville = 11 Machipongo = 25 Painter = 0 Guilford = 0 Beet armyworm Pheromone traps: Modestown = 0 Horntown = 0 Machipongo = 13 Painter = 0 Summary, corn earworm and beet armyworm catch was relatively low in all locations, but picking up in lower Northampton County. Brown stink bug catch is relatively high at both Eastville and Painter.
Jul-08-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Quintec now labeled for Winter Squash, Gourds, and Pumpkins
Dow has recently received a label for use of Quintec on Winter Squash, Gourds and Pumpkins. The only disease that this fungicide is labeled for is powdery mildew. Our research trials over the past few years have shown that this is a very good product for control of cucurbit powdery mildew. Please see attached label for details of usage. Thanks, Steve [More]
Jul-02-2009
Peanut (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Peanut insect pest update, potato leafhoppers on the move
It is worth noting that potato leafhoppers are active in some peanut fields. In some of our plots, especially those that were not treated with in-furrow insecticides for thrips, we are approaching threshold levels of damage. Our recommendation is to treat fields if 20-25% of leaves show typical hopper burn leaf damage symptoms (the yellow V-shaped pattern on the leaflet tips) and hoppers are still present in the field. It is important to determine if leafhoppers are still present because we have found that they typically migrate into and back out of peanut fields throughout the season, and may not actually be present even when leaf damage symptoms are obvious. Mid July is a fairly common time to begin seeing thresholds, if they are going to occur. We recommend checking fields just prior to making other sprays (example, leafspot) so insecticides can be tank mixed if a threshold for leafhoppers is detected. Several pyrethroid insecticides are listed for potato leafhopper control. Also, Lorsban 15G will provide some control, if applied for soil insect control.
Jul-02-2009
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton insect pest update
All is still pretty quiet in terms of cotton insects. Although plant bugs are out there, we know of only one field that was treated. Square retention is good in all the fields we have checked and similar reports are coming in from local crop scouts. Although you can find spider mites in most fields, none are even close to threshold. Aphids are also present, but in very low numbers. Rain (or lack thereof) may be the bigger issue in many areas. Cotton will be blooming soon, and we will begin to shift to sampling developing bolls for stink bug damage. More on that next week.
Jul-02-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Our corn earworm pyrethroid susceptibility monitoring program indicates a possible problem in the making
As you may recall, each year we assess the susceptibility of corn earworm to pyrethroids using the standard AVT (adult vial test) process. This involves collecting live moths using pheromone baited traps from multiple locations across the area. Moths are individually placed into vials pre-treated with cypermethrin (the standard used across the southeastern states) and assessed for mortality after 24 hours. If moths survive this 24 hour exposure, they are considered to be resistant. The percentage of those that survive provides some indication of what growers might expect to see when they apply pyrethroids to crops (soybean, cotton, peanuts). Although not a perfect system for determining actual resistance levels in the population, this procedure does provide valuable insight. For example, last year we had unusually large numbers of survivors. Whereas in previous years we had seen 5 to 10% survivors, in 2008, survivorship in late June exceeded 20%, and then increased to over 40% by August. Over the course of the summer, we received several calls about spray failures: cases where application of normal rates of commonly used pyrethroids did not provide adequate levels of corn earworm control. So, what is the situation this year? Things do not look good. We started the season in early June with less than 10% survivors (see the attached line graphs, 2008 on the left side, 2009 on the right side) but are now at over 30% survivorship, even higher than at this time last year. Granted these data are based on a very small subsample of moths (744 moths to date), but all indications are that we may be in for some problems. Of course things could change as we progress through the season. We will continue to provide updates. [More]
Jul-02-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for the week ending July 2, 2009
Corn earworm moth captures ranged from <1 to 5 moths per night. Please see the attached table for more information. [More]
Jul-02-2009
Turf and Ornamentals (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Virginia Issues Fire Ant Quarantine in 11 Localities
The following advisory is being sent on behalf of Dr. Pete Schultz, Entomologist and Director of the Virginia Tech Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center. Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services has issued a temporary state quarantine for 11 localities in southeastern Virginia. Details as to the locations and regulated articles are available at their website (copy and paste address into your browser): http://www.vdacs.virginia.gov/news/releases-b/062409fireants.shtml
Jul-01-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Super Tin Now Labeled for use on Virginia Potatoes
Super Tin (Either the 4L or 80WP formulation) is now registered for use on potatoes in Virginia. Super Tin is labeled for use on both early and late blight.
Jun-26-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
New 2ee label for Previcur Flex/Admire Pro Tank Mix at Transplanting
Please see Bayer's new 2ee label for a Previcur Flex/Admire Pro Tank Mix at Transplanting for several vegetable crops. [More]
Jun-26-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Revus now labeled for potato ad tomato in Virginia
Due to the recent outbreak of late blight and a shortage of Revus Top, Syngenta has been approved for the attached supplemental label for Revus on potatoes and tomatoes for late blight. [More]
Jun-26-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Cucurbit Downy Mildew Update
Cucurbit downy mildew continues to be discovered in new locations in the SE part of the state. This week we found the disease on cucumbers near Petersburg, VA and also in southern Northampton County on the Eastern Shore. Please continue to monitor cucurbi fields for this disease. Grower particularly those in the SE part of the state are urged to include Ranman, Presidio or Previcur Flex in their spray programs.
Jun-26-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory for June 24
Please see attached Potato Disease Advisory [More]
Jun-25-2009
General Comments (Other)
From Tom Kuhar
1st Annual Methyl Bromide Alternatives Field Day at the Eastern Shore AREC
1st Annual Methyl Bromide Alternatives Field Day at the Eastern Shore AREC July 23rd, 2009 4-6 pm with dinner following Fumigant and non-fumigant strategies will be discussed for the management of soil-borne diseases and weed pests in plasticulture production. Research plots containing alternative fumigants, new mulch technology, herbicide programs as wells as grafted plants will be on the field tour. A barbecue dinner will be served following the field tour. Please reply to Josh Freeman (joshfree@vt.edu) if you plan on attending so that we can accurately plan for dinner. If any questions arise, please contact Josh Freeman. This field day is being supported by funds from the U.S.D.A Methyl Bromide Transitions Program Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center 33446 Research Drive Painter, VA 23420
Jun-25-2009
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Cotton insect pest update: few plant bugs and good square retention in fields
Having passed through thrips season, we are having a little relief from insect pests. So far, there have been almost no reports of mid-season pests like aphids or mites. One field developed aphids in pretty high numbers but by the time it was discovered, tiny parasitic wasps had killed many of them. If we see more than 25% aphid mummies (the dried remains of parasitized aphids), and no insecticide is applied that would kill the wasps, the wasps will usually completely eliminate the aphid population within a week to 10 days. Will plant bug populations be higher this year due to the somewhat wetter conditions? This is being talked about south of us where they are having a wetter than normal season. It is thought that wetter years result in more weeds and alternate hosts plants where plant bug populations can increase. However, most of our cotton area did not receive excessive amounts of rainfall, and some areas are actually getting pretty dry. We are seeing tarnished plant bugs in weeds and crop fields, but not in unusually high numbers. We are just beginning to assess fields for square retention, which is still the best way to determine the need for any action against plant bugs. Plant bugs feed on developing squares causing them to blacken and drop off, leaving a telltale scar where the square had been. With some training, it is fairly easy to inspect a cotton plant and find either blackened squares or the scars where squares were. We consider a field in the safe zone if square retention is 80% or above. This is because cotton can compensate from loss of as much as 20% of the total square load without any reduction in yield. We proved this for ourselves some years back by doing a 2-year study where we removed up to 20% of the first position squares, on several varieties. No yield loss occurred. As of this week, based on checking several fields and reports from field scouts in the private sector, our cotton fields are at greater than 90% square retention, which is what we generally see. A few fields to the south of us in North Carolina have been reported to be in the low 80% range, and one is at 75%. Plant bugs are spotty for sure, but all indications are that this year, like most, will be a low plant bug year.
Jun-24-2009
Soybean (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Summary of 2009 thrips research in soybean
The attached Word document contains data tables summarizing Dr. Herbert's 2009 thrips research in soybean. Trials are still in progress. [More]
Jun-24-2009
Peanut (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Summary of 2009 thrips research in peanut
The attached Word document contains data tables summarizing Dr. Herbert's 2009 thrips research in peanut. Trials are still in progress. [More]
Jun-24-2009
Cotton (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Summary of 2009 thrips research in cotton
The attached Word document contains data tables summarizing Dr. Herbert's 2009 thrips research in cotton. Trials are still in progress. [More]
Jun-20-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Cucurbit Downy Mildew found in Virginia
Cucurbit downy mildew has been found in Virginia, see the attached reprt for more information. [More]
Jun-20-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - June 19
Attached is the Virginia Potato Disease Advisory for this week. [More]
Jun-18-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Sean Malone
Corn earworm moth black light trap captures for week ending June 18, 2009
So far, black light trap operators have reported very low numbers of corn earworm moths in their traps. [More]
Jun-12-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory for June 10
Attached is the lastest update on late blight and the latest Virginia Potato Disease Advisory. [More]
Jun-11-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Thrips update for cotton, peanuts and soybean
As of this week, thrips numbers have decreased in cotton, and plants have grown out of the thrips-susceptible window. We have had good rainfall, temperatures are good and most cotton is at the fifth leaf stage or beyond. We have terminated our cotton thrips sampling and ratings for the season. The attached line graph provides the sticky card data and shows the decline in adult catch across the region. Peanuts are still at risk. As predicted last week, immature thrips numbers have increased in peanut. We are expecting pressure to continue for a least another week to 10 days. In our plots, Temik and Thimet are holding well. For example, in one field trial where we are comparing Temik 15G at 7 lb/acre, Thimet 20G at 5 lb/acres, and some experimental compounds, in the June 9 sample, there were 81 immature thrips/10 leaflets in the untreated plots, 8/10 leaflets in the Thimet treatment, and 7 in the Temik treatment. Untreated peanuts are reaching about a 5.0 on our 0 to 10 plant injury scale (where 0 = no damage and 10 = dead plants). A rating of 5.0 means that almost all leaves are crinkled from thrips feeding and most of the terminals show darkening/blackening. We generally expect yield reductions if ratings get much higher than 5.0, and we will definitely see injury exceed that by next week (given the high number of immatures). But again in our plots, both Temik and Thimet are holding well. We are seeing a big difference among the foliar applied insecticides in terms of thrips control and plant injury. In a nut shell, Orthene 97 and Radiant SC are providing good control as evidenced by the lower plant injury ratings. Karate Z is not performing well in either our cotton or peanut trials. The thrips situation is very different in soybean. We have several trials across the state assessing both seed and foliar treatments. In soybean, our standard sample consists of 10 leaf trifoliates per plot. As of this week, we are getting averages of about 8 to 15 adults and 30 to 50 immatures per sample. The species break down is also different from what we are used to seeing in cotton and peanut. In those crops we normally see 90% + tobacco thrips. In soybeans, we are finding a mix of about 40% tobacco thrips, 50% soybean thrips and 10% other (eastern, onion, other odd balls). We are taking a lot of data this week and next to track the results of our treatments. Thus far, the seed treatments have a lot fewer thrips compared with untreated plots. Although we are finding a lot of thrips on soybean, we see very little actual plant damage. To date, we have never been able to show a yield response from controlling thrips in soybean. With a coordinated effort, this year we will be able to add several more thrips/soybean yield assessments to our data. We will post these results. [More]
Jun-09-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Potato Late Blight Found on Eastern Shore
Potato late blight was found infecting a 30 acre potato field on the Eastern Shore today. The field is located just north of the state line near Pocomoke City, Maryland. Potato and tomato growers on the Eastern Shore are advised to include late blight specific fungicides in their spray regimes. If you suspect late blight in your crop or have any questions, please contact us.
Jun-05-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Cucurbit Downy Mildew Found in North Carolina
Please see the attachment regarding the discovery of cucurbit downy mildew in North Carolina. Thanks [More]
Jun-04-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
VPDA for June 3rd - Late blight found on the Eastern Shore of Virginia
Please see the attached, the latest version of the Virginia Potato Disease Advisory [More]
Jun-04-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
First results from our corn earworm AVT pyrethroid monitoting program
To date we have tested about 450 corn earworm moths collected from two locations (Sugffolk and Southampton Counties). So far, results are prmising with only about 5% overall survivorship. Anything below about 20% is considered low risk in terms of potential field control problems. So we are starting at a good point.
Jun-03-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Thrips in cotton, peanut and soybean
Thrips populations are still increasing. But, in cotton, the treatments seem to be holding, and cotton is growing. The recent rains in many areas may allow cotton to grow through the problem. We are finding a lot of thrips in soybean, and we hear that many growers are treating for them. But even with the leaf 'silvering' and 'crinkling', we have never shown a yield advantage from treating soybeans for thrips. Treatments will certainly green them up, but is that worth the cost, with no added yield advantage? In peanuts, we are expecting damage to get quite a bit worse in the next week. We are still finding more adults than immatures in our peanut leaflet samples. These adults will beget a lot of immatures. Peanuts should be scouted next week at the latest.
Jun-03-2009
Soybean (Other)
From Ames Herbert
Slugs in soybean: What to do.
I have been getting a lot of calls this week about slugs in soybeans. They are a bigger problem this year in some areas because of the cooler, wetter spring/early summer. They are also typically worse in high-residue fields. Although we have had slug problems in both corn and soybean (even a few in cotton), we are not experts in management. We have been communicating with Dr. Ron Hammond at Ohio State University, who is an expert. I know Ron well. He and I have been serving on a soybean/insect regional project for many years and I have a lot of respect for him. Because of the more consistent pressure in his state, several years ago he took on the responsibility of doing slug management research. Here are a few of the common questions that I have been getting, and some of Rons comments. Question: I have lost my soybean stand and am considering replanting. Would tilling the field help get rid of the slugs? Ron: Tilling the field would probably help. However, if slug numbers are high, it might not get enough of them. But overall it should help. A good no-tiller will not do this however. As temps and soils warm and dry up, things will get better because seeds will germinate faster and plants will grow. Galen Dively (University of Maryland) normally suggests late plantings for this reason, as that is when the slug cycle tends to end. Just hope and pray for better weather. That's what we do. Remember that the slugs are still there, just bigger and hungrier! Deadline (by AMVBAC) is the only registered product that will provide good, even excellent, control of slugs. It contains the active ingredient, metaldehyde. There are two mini-pellet formulations, M-Ps which are blue colored, and Bullets, which are tan colored. Most growers prefer the M-Ps as they are easier to see on the ground and make it easier to calibrate the applicator. If Deadline is applied when slugs are present, they will be attracted to it and will feed on it. But keep in mind the pellets do not stay active for more than a few days, and almost any amount of rain rinses out the active ingredient. A 10 lb/acre rate is sufficient, expensive, but effective. Consider treating the worst areas. Question: What about Larvin? I have read that Larvin will kill slugs. Ron: Here is the scoop. Back in the 1980s, we had a grower-prepared bait for corn in Ohio that mixed cracked corn, beer, molasses, and mesurol for slug control. It was a state label. Never could get it for soybean. When soybean began being grown no-till, slugs then became a soybean problem. But we could not use the above bait. However, we found out that Larvin has molluscicidal properties, and got the exact same state label for soybean, but with Larvin rather than mesurol. Worked great. Remember that Larvin has a label on soybean as foliar, so has an EPA tolerance. Also remember that being a carbamate, Larvin has more impact on other things then does metaldehyde. Because of supposed bird kills, the company at the time pulled support of the label. So nobody has the ability to legally use it this way anymore. I checked into it for future use and was basically told, don't bother...but yes, Larvin will kill slugs, is just NOT LEGAL. So what should you do? First consider delaying replanting until the weather straightens out. Delaying planting until it is warmer and drier could be the best approach. If you cannot delay planting, Deadline is the only legal and effective option.
Jun-03-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Brown stink bug eggs being killed by tiny wasps
For the past few weeks, we have been finding a lot of adult brown stink bugs in wheat fields. Most have been found on the edges of fields, next to a tree-line. These are overwintered adults that came into wheat fields after overwintering in nearby weeds. A couple of weeks ago, we began finding a lot of immature stink bugs, nymphs, indicating that a large clutch of egg masses hatched a few weeks ago. We are now seeing 3rd and 4th instar (nearly fully grown) nymphs. This is the first new generation of the summer. Adults from these nymphs will migrate into new host crops, like corn. We have also noticed that many of the stink bug egg masses are parasitized (see attached image). A natural enemy of brown stink bugs is a tiny parasitic wasp called Telenomus podisi. Females use their ovipositor to lay eggs inside of stink bug eggs, and when the larvae hatch, they eat the developing stink bug embryos. This year, we have found that a very high percentage of stink bug eggs are parasitized which means that hundreds of stink bugs will never hatch. In past years, we conducted stink bug egg parasitoid surveys in Virginia. Results indicated that nearly 50% of all brown stink bug eggs and almost 90% of brown stink bug egg masses were parasitized. We are fortunate that these little natural enemies are working to reduce numbers of this troublesome pest. (author: Amanda Koppel, Graduate Student, Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Advisor, Ames Herbert) [More]
May-29-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Latest Virginia Potato Disease Advisory
Attached is the latest Virginia Potato Disease Advisory. [More]
May-28-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Thrips numbers are up, westerns are confirmed, and corn earworm moths are flying
Several things have changed since last weeks advisory. Based on our sticky card samples and plant samples (cotton, peanut and soybean), thrips populations have increased a lot since last week. Interestingly, all five sticky card sample sites show the same trend (see the attached line graph), that numbers were very low last Thursday (probably the end of the second generation) and had much higher numbers this past Tuesday. We think this increase marks the beginning of the third and largest generation. Based on previous years data, this population will not peak for another 10-14 days. Cotton treatments (Avicta, Aeris and Temik) are still holding for the most part but are beginning to show some damage. In our plots, there is not a lot of difference among the three except that the seed treatments may be showing just a little bit more damage. For example, in one test in a 5-plant sample, we counted an average of 7 adult and 55 immature thrips in the untreated control, 0.25 adults and 0.25 immatures in the 5 lb Temik treatment, and 4 adults and 4 immatures in the Aeris treatment. The ratings next week will really sort out the treatments, with the heavy and sustained thrips pressure that we expect will occur over the next few days. If seed treatments have not been sprayed, now would be the time to consider doing it, but only if damaged buds are visible, and plants have live thrips. We have just confirmed western flower thrips in four cotton fields in North Carolina (in Hertford County near Winton). The samples came in yesterday. The fields had been planted with Avicta seed treatment with an additional 3.5 lb of Temik. In addition, they had been treated with 8 oz of Orthene 97 about a week prior to the discovery. In two of the fields, westerns comprised close to 100 and 99% of the thrips complex. In the other two fields, they were about 50/50 with tobacco thrips. Each year we see a few fields with the western thrips problem. Today, Jack Bacheler and Clyde Sorenson from NC State and me, with the aid of the crop consultant, Chad Harrell, put in a small plot test in the field with the worst damage and largest western population. We applied different rates of Radiant SC, Tracer 4SC and Orthene 97. We will take samples next week to see which provide the best control. As for peanuts, we are still not seeing visible evidence of thrips damage, any leaf crinkling. But based on the leaflet samples we took this week, it wont be long. In all of the fields we sampled, there were adult thrips in the leaflets but no immatures. When those adults lay eggs and the immatures hatch and begin feeding, damage symptoms will start showing up. This is exactly the right time to apply foliar insecticide treatments to peanuts, if they have not already been protected with in-furrow insecticide treatments. Sprays now would prevent those immatures from developing. If peanuts did receive an in-furrow treatment, then we would recommend waiting a week to determine how well those treatments are holding. Finally, we were surprised by the number of corn earworm moths that we collected in our local pheromone baited traps. Over the past two nights, we have collected about 200 moths. We have put them into what we call the AVT (adult vial test) to begin monitoring for pyrethroid resistance. Last year the AVT data gave us a good heads up on a potential resistance problem. We do not have vial test results yet, but will begin posting those as we get them. [More]
May-28-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Insect Blacklight Trap Counts form the Eastern Shore - Week Ending May 29
After once again battling bird nests in our blacklight trap and a lot of rainfall for most of May in Painter, we have finally gotten some usable information. This week's trap catch included 0 European corn borer moths, 12 Corn earworm moths, and 205 green stink bugs. It is early for corn earworm moths, so a catch of 12 moths is interesting and should be monitored closely in future weeks. A catch of 205 green stink bugs per week in May is both high and early for that pest. This is another insect that should be monitored closely for in the coming weeks on the Eastern Shore.
May-27-2009
Field Corn (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Pest concerns on corn this year on the Eastern Shore
The above-normal rainfall that weve had on the Eastern Shore has brought some pest problems to corn growers in Virginia. Periods of cool wet weather after planting resulted in slow germination in many fields, which left seeds and seedlings more vulnerable to soil insect pests such as seedcorn maggot, white grubs, and wireworms. The longer the seed remains in the ground the greater the chance of it being discovered by the aforementioned soil pests. At this point, most corn has been planted and there isnt anything a grower can do postplanting for these soil pests. The majority of corn was probably treated with an insecticide seed treatment such as Poncho or Cruiser, which undoubtedly helped improve stand in many fields this year. Another problem that the spring rainfall brought was slugs in no-till fields. This is an age old problem, and the solution has not changed in decades. Dry weather will eliminate the slug problem. However, if seedlings are small (less than 3 leaves), and the slug infestation is heavy, economic damage can occur from this pest. Below is the recommendations taken from the Virginia Cooperative Extension Pest management Guide for Field Crops http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/pmg/fc/InsectsCorn.pdf Slug, Snail Sampling/Decision Making Slugs can become serious pests in no-till fields during spring periods of cool, wet weather. Fields with heavy layers of manure, crop refuse, or thick weed cover are at higher risk from slugs. Because slugs feed at night and hide during the day in the mulch and surface trash near the seedlings, they often are not suspected of being the cause of the shredded leaves on the young corn seedlings. Yet slugs can be found during the day by turning over clods of dirt and surface trash near the seedlings. It is suggested that samples be taken from the area around 5 plants in 10 locations of the field to determine the average number of slugs associated with each plant. Populations of 5 or more slugs around each plant at the spike through the 3rd-leaf stage may be economic, especially if injury is heavy, plant growth is slow, and cool, wet conditions prevail. During dry, warm weather, 10 or more slugs per plant may be tolerated. Also, corn seedlings that have reached the 3rd-leaf stage of growth generally are able to outgrow feeding damage by slugs. Cultural practices which may help reduce slug populations include reduction in the use of manure, shift to conventional tillage practices for at least one season, and minimum tillage to reduce the amount of surface trash. There is basically one registered product for control of slugs, and it works well  Metaldehyde (product = Deadline M-Ps, or Deadline Bullets)applied at 10.0-40.0 lb per acre. For best results, apply product in evening. Especially beneficial if applied following rain or watering. It should be noted that most corn-producing states are suggesting an application rate of 12 to 15 lb/A, if banded over or along side the row after the plants have emerged. Recent Delaware field trials indicate good results against slugs using 10 lb Deadline M-Ps/A broadcast with a cyclone spreader. Spreader must be calibrated to deliver at least 5 pellets/sq ft. Slugs generally stop feeding in 2-3 hours and die within 2-3 days. Another potential spring pest problem in corn is armyworm infestations on seedlings or early-whorl stage plants. Armyworm is a common early season pest that can cause occasional losses in corn and should be monitored for in the spring. Infestations usually first develop in fields of small grains or in other grass cover crops. In conventional tillage systems, partially-grown larvae can migrate into corn fields from grassy waterways or wheat fields. Armyworms chew irregular holes on the edges of corn leaves. Damage is usually first noticeable around the field margins adjacent to these areas. The name armyworm derives from its behavior of migrating in large numbers into fields similar to invading armies. In no-till or reduced tillage systems, infestation may cover the entire field. In these systems, eggs may be laid on grasses within the field prior to planting and herbicides may force armyworms to feed on corn as the weeds or cover crop dies. Cool, wet, spring weather usually favors armyworm development. Armyworms overwinter as partially grown larvae in grasses or small grain fields. When warm spring temperatures return, armyworm feeding resumes. Armyworms may move onto corn during this period. Moths also begin flying in spring and deposit new eggs. Eggs are small, greenish-white, globular, and laid in clusters of 25 or more on the leaves of grasses. True Armyworm Sampling/Decision Making (taken from the VCE Pest Management Guide Pub. No. 456-016). No-till fields planted into a small grain cover crop, pastures, or weedy fields all have a high risk for armyworm infestation. Survey field edges where margins border small grains or large grassy areas and watch for damaged plants. If armyworm damage is seen, examine 20 plants at each of 5 locations within the field and record the percentage of damaged plants, the average size, and the severity of injury. Armyworms usually migrate from small grains starting in late May. Spot treatments may be warranted if infestations are confined to small areas. Control for armyworms is recommended if 35 percent or more of the plants are infested and 50 percent or more defoliation is seen on the damaged plants, provided that larvae average less than 0.75 inch long. Worms greater than 1.25 inches in length usually have completed their feeding. A number of insecticide products provide effective control of true armyworm including: most pyrethroids such as Baythroid, permethrin, Asana XL, Mustang Max, Warrior/Karate, Hero, as well as other insecticides such as Lorsban, Lannate, Sevin, Pencap-M, and Bt products.
May-22-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory for May 13-20
Attached is the latest VPDA. Thanks [More]
May-21-2009
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Thrips update revised to high risk to cotton
Forget everything I predicted last week. Most of it was wrong. I had a mentor early on in my career who very wisely said, If you try to predict insects, theyll make a liar out of you every time. So true he was. Last week I suggested that we might have a relatively light thrips year; that based on the excellent soil moisture and warm growing conditions up to that point, cotton might grow so quickly as to not need extra foliar sprays. Two major things have changed. One, the weather took a dramatic turn to the cool side. Since May 11, we have had five nights in the 40s¬ good cotton weather. We have continued to get rain, heavy in some spots, with up to 3 to 6 inches in single events. Most of our cotton is germinated, in the 1st to 2nd true leaf stage, but the cold weather has it sitting still. To make matters worse, thrips populations are increasing. As I said in last weeks email, we are using yellow sticky cards to monitor thrips populations in five locations across our cotton region. We check and replace the cards two times each week, on Mondays and Thursdays. The counts are up (see the attached line graph with sticky card data counts from the 5 locations), and based on what we know from sampling over the past few years, the peak has not occurred. When cotton is growing so slowly, plants are very vulnerable to thrips feeding. Thrips concentrate their feeding on the tiny seedling bud, or growing point. Just a few days of intensive feeding can have dramatic effects by stunting plants, greatly slowing maturity, or in really bad cases, will even kill the seedling. And in our experience, when plants are sitting still it does not take many thrips per plant to cause significant damage. So what should growers do? Scout fields and consider a foliar treatment if more than 10% of plants have noticeable damage to the bud. Damaged buds will be deformed and blackened. Bud damage indicates that whatever was applied at planting, seed or in-furrow treatment, is no longer doing the job. Fields that had heavy or continued rains will be at the highest risk as any planting time insecticides will most likely be washed out of the system. I have been asked about what to spray and how much. To date, our best foliar control has been obtained with acephate (e.g., Orthene). Pyrethroids do a good job, but never quite as good as acephate. Each year we do a lot of cotton thrips trials and we have yet to see an Orthene failure. But, it has happened on a few growers fields where western flower thrips have become the primary pest species. Orthene does an excellent job of controlling tobacco thrips, still our primary pest species, but does a poor job on western flower thrips. Pyrethroids are no better, even worse in some cases. To date, we have only seen westerns as the primary pest species in a very few fields. The great majority are still infested with tobacco thrips, which means they can be protected with 4 to 6 oz of Orthene per acre. We recommend that broadcast sprays go out with enough volume to achieve good coverage of the seedlings. I tell folks that good coverage means seedlings should be completely wet after the sprayer passes over. Higher rates of Orthene are not needed for tobacco thrips, and higher rates are not more effective on westerns. Last year we found that the best product for controlling westerns was Radiant SC (a Dow AgroSciences product). This would be a costly choice and only warranted if a good thrips sample and identification by a lab verified the problem. Lets hope westerns are not a big issue this year. Based on what we know today, we are still recommending the old standards. [More]
May-18-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Valent announces new supplental label for Danitol Insecticide on fruit and vegetables
Click on More for the new Danitol Supplemental Label, which contains the new uses that were recently approved by the EPA. Danitol is now labeled for use on stone fruit, olive, tree nuts, and tropical and sub-tropical fruit. Danitol is also labeled for use on caneberries (under the berries section). Last, additional pests were added to the fruiting vegetables, grape, pea, and pome fruit labels and they are included on this label. All of your states have been notified of this new Supplemental Label and it is ready to be used by growers on these new crops. [More]
May-15-2009
Cotton (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Thrips are slow to build and cotton is advancing
This may be a year, the first in many, when cotton growers may not have to make as many, or any foliar insecticide applications for thrips. As of this week, we are just beginning to see movement of adult thrips into cotton. We have 3x5 inch yellow sticky cards placed into fields in 5 locations around our cotton growing area (one of those is just across the state line in Northampton County, NC). We are getting a few adult tobacco thrips, an occasional western flower thrips, and a lot of soybean thrips (which are not a serious problem in cotton). I think we are just at the beginning of the large third thrips generation that typically causes our problems. Thrips cause the biggest challenge to seedling cotton when it is cool and dry after emergence. Cool, dry conditions slow seedling growth exposing plants to thrips feeding for a longer period of time, and inhibit insecticide uptake creating the perfect storm. However this year, we have good soil moisture and a lot of cotton was planted in late April during the warm spell and is already pushing the 2-leaf stage. With one more rain and another week of warm weather, many fields will be out of danger, or at least at much lower risk to thrips damage. Once pants reach the 3-4 leaf stage, thrips feeding may cause some leaf crinkling, but the damage does not reduce yield. Thrips WILL invade cotton, and most likely in large numbers. But this year, if rains and warm weather continues, plants may be able to quickly outgrow the damage. PS, we have been having some issues with this advisory, delivering multiple emails. The Southern Region IPM Center in Raleigh, NC hosts and services this advisory. They are doing what they can to clear up the problem. We are grateful to them for their continued support of our VA AG Pest Advisory.
May-14-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Don't spray for European corn borer on the Eastern Shore
Some potato growers on the Eastern Shore of Virginia are wondering about whether or not to spray insecticides for European corn borer, a pest which damages potatoes by boring into stems and causing the whole stem to wilt and die. The practice of spraying for this pest in potatoes has a long history on the Eastern Shore. Growers have traditionally sprayed products like Penncap-M, Furadan, pyrethroids (Asana, Baythroid, or Warrior), or SpinTor for this insect pest. However, there are very few other regions in the U.S., where potato growers spray insecticides for corn borer, including our neighboring state, North Carolina (according to my colleagues). I am making a strong suggestion to growers that it is time to stop this traditional insecticide spraying in May for this pest on potatoes. Here are my reasons: 1. Many potato growers are using the systemic insecticide Regent at-planting for wireworm control. This insecticide is very efficacious to corn borer larvae. Our research has shown that you will have almost no corn borer tunnels in potato plants treated with Regent in-furrow. 2. There is very convincing evidence from historical moth catch data at blacklight traps that European corn borer densities regionwide have dropped tremendously over the past decade (click on More to see data graphs of historic European corn borer pest pressure in Painter Virginia on different crops). The adoption of Bt corn on the Delmarva is likely a major contributor to this decline in ECB populations. Bt corn provides virtually 100% kill to ECB. Any eggs deposited on corn (the preferred host) will essentially be a deadend for the population. This has been demonstrated in the Corn Belt states as well. 3. There is strong research evidence that potato plants can tolerate a lot of ECB tunneling before economic yield loss occurs. The potato plants may look bad in an infested field, but the damage often comes late when plants are ready to dry down any way. 4. This year, weve not caught any ECB moths in our blacklight trap at Painter. So, I realize that many growers are probably spraying fungicides for late blight on potatoes currently. Youre probably convinced that adding an insecticide in the tank makes economical sense. But, if you dont need it, then it really doesnt make sense. The only other damaging insect pests of potatoes on the Eastern Shore are Colorado potato beetle and potato leafhopper. Both of these insects should be controlled by the at-planting applications of a neonicotinoid such as Admire, Platinum, Venom, Tops MZ-Gaucho, or Cruiser. Sincerely, Tom Kuhar Associate Professor of Entomology Virginia Tech [More]
May-13-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
VPDA for May 12th
Attached is the Virginia Potato Disease Advisory for May 12th. If you have any questions, please let us know. [More]
May-12-2009
General Comments (Other)
From Sean Malone
Reminder: June 4 tour at the Tidewater AREC, Suffolk, VA
This is a reminder of your invitation to the Early Summer Row Crops and Vegetables Tour at the Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Suffolk, VA on Thursday, June 4, 2009. The tour will begin at 9:00 am at the Hare Road research farm, and lunch will be provided courtesy of Berry Lewis with Bayer CropScience. The agenda includes an introduction by Allen Harper, with field plot tours by Ames Herbert, Patrick Phipps, Jaihuai Hu, Janet Spencer, and Maria Balota. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event.
May-07-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - May 6
Attached is the Virginia Potato Disease Advisory. Recent rainy conditions have led to accumulation of values above thresholds on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Please see the report for more recommendations. [More]
May-07-2009
Field Corn (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Slugs on seedling corn on the Eastern Shore
With the persistent rain that we've had recently on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, slugs have started attacking corn and other crops in some no-till fields. This is an age old problem, and the solution has not changed in decades. Dry weather will eliminate the slug problem. However, if seedlings are small (less than 3 leaves), and the slug infestation is heavy, economic damage can occur from this pest. Below is the recommendations taken from the Virginia Cooperative Extension Pest management Guide for Field Crops http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/pmg/fc/InsectsCorn.pdf Slug, Snail Sampling/Decision Making Slugs can become serious pests in no-till fields during spring periods of cool, wet weather. Fields with heavy layers of manure, crop refuse, or thick weed cover are at higher risk from slugs. Because slugs feed at night and hide during the day in the mulch and surface trash near the seedlings, they often are not suspected of being the cause of the shredded leaves on the young corn seedlings. Yet slugs can be found during the day by turning over clods of dirt and surface trash near the seedlings. It is suggested that samples be taken from the area around 5 plants in 10 locations of the field to determine the average number of slugs associated with each plant. Populations of 5 or more slugs around each plant at the spike through the 3rd-leaf stage may be economic, especially if injury is heavy, plant growth is slow, and cool, wet conditions prevail. During dry, warm weather, 10 or more slugs per plant may be tolerated. Also, corn seedlings that have reached the 3rd-leaf stage of growth generally are able to outgrow feeding damage by slugs. Cultural practices which may help reduce slug populations include reduction in the use of manure, shift to conventional tillage practices for at least one season, and minimum tillage to reduce the amount of surface trash. There is basically one registered product for control of slugs, and it works well. metaldehyde(product = Deadline M-Ps, deadline Bullets)applied at 10.0-40.0 lb per acre. For best results, apply product in evening. Especially beneficial if applied following rain or watering. It should be noted that most corn-producing states are suggesting an application rate of 12 to 15 lb/A, if banded over or along side the row after the plants have emerged. Recent Delaware field trials indicate good results against slugs using 10 lb Deadline M-Ps/A broadcast with a cyclone spreader. Spreader must be calibrated to deliver at least 5 pellets/sq ft. Slugs generally stop feeding in 2-3 hours and die within 2-3 days.
May-04-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
New Crops on Switch Label
Several new vegetables have been added to the Switch label by Syngenta Crop Protection. New crops include: Cucurbits, Tomatoes, and Root and Tuber Vegetables. Please see the attached label for these changes. Added or altered information is highlighted in yellow. Should you have any further questions feel free to contact me. Thanks [More]
Apr-28-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Disease)
From Steven Rideout
Virginia Potato Disease Advisory - April 28th
Attached is the first edition of the Virginia Potato Disease Advisory. Thanks [More]
Apr-23-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Early-season insect activity on the Eastern Shore
We've had a somewhat slow start to spring on the Eastern Shore of VA with regards to insect pests. *****THRIPS******Over the past month we have collected flowering weeds (mostly mustard and henbit) around farms in Accomack and Northampton Counties to sample for overwintering thrips populations. Although we have found a few tobacco thrips, Eastern flower thrips, and Western flower thrips on the weeds, most flowers have been void of thrips, and overall the counts are less than they were this time last year. This is hopefully good news to farmers..., but we'll see how populations build up in the small grains crops. ******Colorado potato beetle****** This week I found the first Colorado potato beetles coming to potato plants and mating. Egg-laying will soon follow, and probably has already begun in the Cape Charles potato-growing region. The vast majority of growers used an at-planting application of a neonicotinoid insecticide such as Admire, Platinum, or Venom, which should provide control of beetles until around June. *****Wheat***** Many growers on the Eastern Shore applied a pyrethroid insecticide this spring for aphids...I guess. This spray was probably not warranted. I've discussed this matter with Dr. Ames Herbert (Virginia Tech TWAREC), who has many years of experience with aphid pest management in wheat. Aphids seldom ever need to be sprayed on wheat in the early spring. Populations are rarely ever high enough, and natural enemies, particularly parasitoids, will soon catch up to the aphid populations and bring the densities under control. One grower from Northampton County called me this week to tell me that despite strong suggestions from the pesticide applicators to include a pyrethroid insecticide in the spray tank for wheat, he declined. A week later, he said that most of the aphids looked grayish and sick - aphid mummies from the parasitoids. He was glad that he didn't spray. It's seems like an easy decision. Sure, you are making a pass over the field anyway, and logic tells you that a pyrethroid is relatively cheap, and you should probably do it. Well even it is only $3 per acre, that's $3 that probably most of our growers did not need to spend. One concern with aphids is vectoring Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, but this would have been done in the Fall of the year, and spraying now would not matter. Cereal leaf beetle adults were present, but in very low numbers. Also, I recently heard a scout on the Eastern Shore tell me that in his many years of scouting wheat, he's only seen two fields that exceeded threshold for cereal leaf beetle.
Apr-13-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
New potato label for Coragen insecticide foliar use
DUPONT" recently announced a new special label for the anthranilic diamide insecticide CORAGEN® for foliar use on potatoes. In our research trials, Coragen has provided excellent control of Colorado potato beetle, European corn borer, and beet armyworm, which can attack potatoes in our region. Click on More to download the special label. [More]
Apr-13-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
New special label for Coragen insecticide for at-planting applications on veggies
DUPONT" recently announced a new special label for at-planting soil application uses for the systemic insecticide CORAGEN®. Added to the label were new vegetable crops includings BRASSICAS (cole crops), CUCURBITS, FRUITING VEGETABLES and LEAFY VEGETABLES. In our research trials, Coragen has provided excellent control of most lepidopteran pests as a systemic insecticide. Other pests including Colorado potato beetle, whiteflies, and leafminers have also been effectively controlled. Click on More to download the special label [More]
Apr-02-2009
General Comments (Insect)
From Ames Herbert
Coragen is now labeled for cotton
A new insecticide, Coragen, by DuPont, is now labeled for use on cotton (and several other crops). The active ingredient of Coragen is rynaxypyr, an insecticide in the new class, anthranilic diamides. Its main strength is against lepidopterous pests which means corn earworm (cotton bollworm), tobacco budworm, and fall and beat armyworms. We have done a fair amount of field testing against corn earworm and it works very well. Please see the product label for details.
Apr-01-2009
General Comments (Other)
From Ames Herbert
Early Summer Row Crops and Vegetables Tour: Insects, Diseases, and Agronomics, TAREC
We will be hosting the annual Early Summer Row Crops and Vegetables Tour: Insects, Diseases, and Agronomics at the Virginia Tech Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Suffolk, VA on Thursday, June 4, 2009. The tour will begin at 9:00 am at the Hare Road research farm, and lunch will be provided. We plan to apply for Certified Crop Advisor Continuing Education Units for this meeting. More details will be provided as we get closer to the date. If you are interested in an equipment, company or agency display, please contact us. If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center at 757-657-6450 (TDD number is 800-828-1120) during business hours of 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event.
Jan-23-2009
Fruits and Vegetables (General) (Insect)
From Tom Kuhar
Valent announces new Belay Insecticide for Potato seed piece
Valent USA Corp. recently announced a brand new supplemental label for the insecticide Belay for potato seed piece application. The active ingredient is the systemic neonicotinoid, clothianidin, which is found in the popular corn seed treatment Poncho. Field tests with Belay on potatoes in Virginia, have shown it to be excellent for control of Colorado potato beetle and potato leafhoppers. It should also provide some suppression of wireworms coming to the seed piece. Click more for the supplemental label. [More]


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