Information Requests Monitoring System

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Request ID: 98
Request From: Steve Toth
Date Requested: Nov 30, 2004
Request: Please note the following request for information on simazine products used on turfgrass (for sod, fairways, lawns, and similar areas). Check with the specialists in your state/territory and forward any replies to the Southern Region IPM Center Information Requests Monitoring System. Thanks. Steve Toth ------------------------------------------------- From: Harold Coble Date: 30 November 2004 Subject: OPP update on simazine and propazine and request WE are in need of use data for simazine on turfgrass. I know most of the use is on warm season grass, but we need to know how much and where it is used. thanks, Harold -----Original Message----- From: Sherman.Diane@epamail.epa.gov Sent: November 29, 2004 Subject: OPP update on simazine and propazine and request The risk assessments for simazine and propazine are still underway, and I was wondering if you might be able to help us with some information needs. OPP is having a difficult time locating usage information for simazine products used on turfgrass (for sod, fairways, lawns, and similar areas). We are interested in determining where this use occurs (states, regions), when this use occurs seasonally, and how popular simazine products are for turf. Essentially we are trying to determine how prevalent this use is. We would welcome any information you'd be willing to share with us. Thank you for considering this request, and let me know if you have any questions. Diane Sherman Chemical Review Manager Special Review and Reregistration Division sherman.diane@epa.gov P 703.308.0128 F 703.308.8041 Mailing address: US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs, 7508C Ariel Rios Building 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20460

Responses
Responder: Mark Mossler
State: FL
Date Requested: Dec 14, 2004
Response: With regard to Florida - the first question (propazine) is easy. This material is not currently registered here and has not been for some time. With regard to use of simazine in turf grass: it is used almost exclusively by golf courses and then only a small percentage. After talking to the pesticide distributors and extension turf specialist - we put together a figure of 130,000 golfing acres x 5 percent of courses x 1 application per year x 3 lb ai/A = approx. 20,000 pounds per year in warm season turf. Golf courses are generally more concentrated the further you go down the peninsula. Mark Mossler University of Florida

Responder: Mark Mossler
State: FL
Date Requested: Dec 15, 2004
Response: With regard to Florida - the first question (propazine) is easy. This material is not currently registered here and has not been for some time. With regard to use of simazine in turf grass: it is used almost exclusively by golf courses and then only a small percentage. After talking to the pesticide distributors and extension turf specialist - we put together a figure of 130,000 golfing acres x 5 percent of courses x 1 application per year x 3 lb ai/A = approx. 20,000 pounds per year in warm season turf. Golf courses are generally more concentrated the further you go down the peninsula. Mark Mossler University of Florida mamossler@mail.ifas.ufl.edu

Responder: John Boyd
State: AR
Date Requested: Dec 15, 2004
Response: We treat at the 1.0 lb ai/A raten of simazine in turf, typically somwhere from late November to early March. It goes on lawns, golf courses and sod farms. I would estimate usage at around 2,000 acres annually. John Boyd Extension Weed Scientist University of Arkansas PO Box 391 Little Rock AR 72203 Office: 501-671-2224 Cell: 501-944-0951 Fax: 501-671-2252 UPS: 2301 S. University

Responder: Mark Matocha
State: TX
Date Requested: Dec 15, 2004
Response: Simazine use in Texas - Information from Dr. James McAfee - Extension Turfgrass Specialist - Dallas, TX Simazine is one of the top herbicides used for winter weed control in home lawns, commercial sites and sports fields. It is primarily used by commercial applicators for lawn care companies, landscape companies, sports field managers and some golf courses. Application timining would be primarily in the fall and early months of the year. To my knowledge, there is not a simazine source that is sold in retail stores for use by homeowners. Simazine is also used widely in sod production in the fall and early spring months. Simazine provides very effective control of common winter weeds and is very inexpensive to use. Mark A. Matocha Extension Program Specialist - AES 115 Agronomy Field Lab College Station, TX 77843-2488 phone: (979)845-3849 fax: (979)845-6251

Responder: Steve Toth
State: NC
Date Requested: Dec 15, 2004
Response: Information from the North Carolina Turfgrass Crop Profile (http://www.ipmcenters.org/cropprofiles/docs/NCturfgrass.html): Herbicide Use Weeds are the number one pest problem for turfgrasses in North Carolina. Of all pest problems, weeds rank first in all segments of the industry with golf courses being the lone exception where weeds are second to diseases. Herbicides are heavily relied upon for weed management in turf due to limited cultural control methods such as crop rotation and cultivation. Preemergence herbicides for crabgrass and goosegrass are the most commonly used products. These include dinitroanilines (DNAs) such as pendimethalin (Pendulum, Pre M), prodiamine (Barricade), benefin + trifluralin (Team Pro), oryzalin (Surflan). Two other commonly used preemergence herbicides that are not DNAs are oxadiazon (Ronstar) and dithiopyr (Dimension). As with insecticides, herbicides will be broken into two categories: home lawn (homeowner use) and commercial (golf courses, commercial properties, roadsides, and professional lawn care companies). Home Lawns Homeowners and tenants spent $18.8 million on herbicides and weed control products in 1994. This represents 4% of total maintenance costs for lawn care but represents 69% of all costs associated with pest control. Weeds rank as the number one turf management problem in home lawns. Over 39% of turf management problems are weed problems. Poor soil (20% of turf management problems) is the second most common turf management problem. Insects and diseases are 2.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Preemergence herbicides represent the majority (>80%) of weed control products in home lawns. These include the DNAs for crabgrass and goosegrass control and atrazine (various trade names) and imazaquin (Image) for preemergence/postemergence broadleaf weed control and annual bluegrass control. In tall fescue, the DNAs are essentially the only preemergence herbicides used whereas in warm-season turf such as bermudagrass, centipedegrass, zoysia, and St. Augustinegrass, imazaquin and atrazine are commonly used for miscellaneous broadleaf and annual bluegrass control. The DNAs are also commonly used in warm-season turf for crabgrass and goosegrass control. Postemergence herbicides are used for remedial weed control in various turfgrass species utilized in home lawns. The only postemergence herbicide available for crabgrass and goosegrass control is sethoxydim (Vantage) for use in centipedegrass and fine fescue. There are many products that are mixtures of herbicides and are mostly used for control of miscellaneous broadleaf weeds. Common combination products include 2,4-D, mecoprop, and dicamba in various concentrations and ratios. These products are routinely available in garden centers. Commercial As with home lawns, weed problems generally rank in the top 2 to 3 turfgrass management problems in commercial turf. Because many more herbicides are available to turfgrass managers licensed as commercial applicators, the spectrum of herbicides used in commercial turf exceeds those used by homeowners. In some areas of commercial turf, herbicide use makes up a vast majority of pesticide use. Weed problems that result in herbicide use include crabgrass and goosegrass which, as in home lawns, still represents the vast majority of preemergence herbicide use. Preemergence herbicides for crabgrass and goosegrass represent approximately 60% of all herbicide use in commercial turf. These include the previously mentioned DNAs (pendimethalin, oryzalin, trifluralin + benefin, benefin (alone)) and dithiopyr and oxadiazon. Postemergence herbicides are also utilized for remedial crabgrass and goosegrass control on approximately 10% of turfgrasses. These are utilized when preemergence herbicide activity is inadequate. Products used for postemergence control in bermudagrass include monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) and MSMA + metribuzin (Sencor). In cool-season turf, fenoxaprop (Acclaim Extra) is utilized for postemergence crabgrass and goosegrass control. On some sites, fenoxaprop is utilized as the primary means of crabgrass control but in most cases it is still used when preemergence activity is lost. In many cases, herbicides are used with both preemergence and postemergence activity. These include ethofumesate (Prograss) for annual bluegrass control in cool-season turf (2% of acreage), simazine for winter annual broadleaves and annual bluegrass control (5% of acreage), atrazine for the same weeds (<1% of acreage), imazaquin (5% of acreage), and pronamide (Kerb, 3% of acreage). In industrial turf, particularly roadsides, herbicides make up 98% of all pesticide use. Many industrial herbicides have both preemergence and postemergence activity. Sulfometuron (Oust) is commonly used (90%) for warm-season release on roadsides in North Carolina. Metsulfuron (Escort) also has preemergence and postemergence activity and is used on approximately 15% of industrial turf. Imazapic (Plateau or Imazapic Applicators Concentrate) is used on approximately 5% of industrial turf. Many postemergence herbicides are used in commercial turf. Combination products are also commonly used. These include 2,4-D, mecoprop, and dicamba (various trade names), 2,4-D, mecoprop, and dichlorprop (various trade names), and triclopyr + clopyralid (Confront), and combinations of these products. These postemergence herbicides are used on approximately 25% of commercial turf in North Carolina for control of miscellaneous broadleaf weeds. Glyphosate (Roundup Pro) and glufosinate (Finale) are also used for turf renovation. Each year, approximately 4% of turf acreage gets one of these herbicides.

Responder: Fred Yelverton
State: NC
Date Requested: Dec 17, 2004
Response: Simazine is used extensively on warm-season turf in North Carolina. It is used on bermudagrass, zoysia, centipede and St. Augustine (basically all warm-season turf we have). Simazine really forms the basis of weed management in sod production, is very important on bermudagrass golf courses for winter weed control where they are not overseeded, and also important for home lawns. It is used in three important areas of turf in North Carolina: sod production, golf courses and home lawns. I can perhaps give a percentage of the acreage on which iti used (it would be a guess). Simazine is used extensively, and it is argueably one of the most important weed control tools in North Carolina. Fred H Yelverton Spec (Turfgrass/Forage Crop Weed Mgt) Department of Crop Science North Carolina State University E-mail: fred_yelverton@ncsu.edu Phone: (919) 515-5639

Responder: Robert (Bob) Bellinger
State: SC
Date Requested: May 10, 2005
Response: Steve, FYI: The folks I sent this to never responded to me. Perhaps they sent responses elsewhere. Bob B.

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